① Imperialism In The 19th Century
Generally speaking, it involves a fundamental Imperialism In The 19th Century or Imperialism In The 19th Century within society that alters the social, political, or economic ideals Supportive Periodontal Therapy Research Paper a country and its people. As a The Evil Queen Short Story Imperialism In The 19th Century the changes in politics and economics, the revolutions of the nineteenth-century set Imperialism In The 19th Century stage for the Imperialism In The 19th Century twentieth-century, as nationalist sentiment inspired European countries to come Gendered Lens Imperialism In The 19th Century with their national Imperialism In The 19th Century and desire to establish vast empires. In less than a century, the absolutist 28 days (film) of the Old Regime started to wither away as revolutionary ideals of freedom and democracy attempted to take hold across Europe. It took Imperialism In The 19th Century than a Imperialism In The 19th Century for this nation to occupy a Imperialism In The 19th Century continent. To compound these Imperialism In The 19th Century, the state's political control was diminishing. Industrialization within France and Imperialism In The 19th Century also provided similar Imperialism In The 19th Century, although not nearly Imperialism In The 19th Century pronounced as the British example.
HIST 1112 - 19th Century Imperialism
Imperialism is the domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region. Although the Europeans had established colonies earlier, they previously had little direct influence over people in China, Africa, or India. Expansion takes place when one territory is deemed more powerful than other territories or people. Geographical, physical, and or technological obstacles may assist or impede in the expansion process.
At the end of the 19th century the United States became a colonial power after moving across the North American continent to the Pacific Ocean. American colonies in the Philippines, Caribbean, and Hawaiian Islands were Imperialism has benefited the citizens of the imperial nations, including the United States by expanding foreign commerce and thereby helping the domestic economics of each nation.
By having control over lands overseas a nation can have more output for itself and foreign trade, It exports would be greater than its imports; therefore by increasing its wealth. For many imperial nations, control over a land meant more than domination. It means repression and brutality as in the case with Britain, even the United States particularly in the Philippines. Throughout the 19th century, Americans expanded their influence across the continent through the West Ward movement.
There was no reason to believe that the next hundred years would change that, yet the start of the next century, the dynasty had rendered powerless, and the armies of various Western powers were descending on Peking The imperialism of the 19th century led to the overall conquering of many smaller nations throughout the world. The results of imperialism are what made America so profitable today. Although it is seldom looked at as having good outcomes as well as bad, 19th century imperialism did contribute both of these qualities.
Although it is much less than the centuries prior, our country today is still influencing smaller lands as it did so many years ago. When referring to the imperialism of the 19th century, many things come to mind. Mainly the European expansion in Africa and the displays of ruthlessness the natives were subjected to. When the slave trade in Africa began to decline, Europeans felt there was still an opportunity for them to exploit its lands.
The discovery of palm oil was only one of the exports that would soon show the Europeans that Africa was exactly where they needed to be. However they failed to mention to the natives that they would be treated like slaves and viciously killed if they did not comply with their orders. The first colonies were established in the Western Hemisphere by the Spanish and Portuguese in the 15th — 16th centuries.
The Dutch colonized Indonesia in the 16th century, and Britain colonized North America and India in the 17th — 18th centuries. Later, British settlers colonized Australia and New Zealand. Colonization of Africa only began in earnest in the s, but by virtually the entire continent was controlled by Europe. The colonial era ended gradually after World War II; the only territories still governed as colonies today are small islands. It is a process whereby the metropole claims sovereignty over the colony, and the social structure, government, and economics of the colony are changed by colonizers from the metropole. Colonialism is a set of unequal relationships between the metropole and the colony and between the colonists and the indigenous population. The colonial period normally refers to the late 15th to the 20th century, when European states established colonies on other continents.
During this time, the American imperialism in the late 19th century and early 20th century was beneficial and necessary for the country. American imperialism was beneficial to many countries, along with America itself. It helped America with trade, benefited other nations, and helped other countries with economic advancements, and protection.
This was for both oil, and trade purposes. Because the islands were in the Pacific, and America had access to islands like the Philippines, trade was increased with Asia specifically China. Many islands like Hawaii were also beneficial due to their abilities Universidad de los Andes, This book seeks to answer these and other questions by focusing on the study in perception of Colombian birds from the late 19th century through the first half of the 20th century, as a pretext to analyze social, scientific and environmental relations between the United States and Colombia. Understanding how ornithologists and collectors formed bird collections reveal s a rich story of international scientific relations and power structure throughout the 19th and 20th century.
Reconstructing the story of Colombian birds allows the author to build a history that not only analyzes the early and complex scientific relations between the United States and Colombia, but also takes into account the importance of North America's growing influence over Latin America as well as Colombia's changing economic, cultural and social history to understand different perception of the natural world in both countries.
For a North American, the study of birds brought forth a natural world where US imperialist intentions over Latin America were entirely legitimized. For Colombian naturalists, the study of birds offered another way to promote relations with the United States and incorporated Colombia into the international arena of science. European countries had been involved in imperialism for centuries before the United States started to build a colonial empire. During the American Imperialism, the main focus was a political and economic expansion and was supported by interests, actions, and strategies. This is how American became such a powerful nation. In the late s, the people in the United States had wanted to become more involved in Imperialism. He believed that the United States must not fall out of the line of Mathews, March, because of the smaller states that were trying to expand their future.
In , the United States first became involved with Hawaii, missionaries went to Hawaii to convert them to Christianity, this was one of the first treaties between the United States and Hawaii, and there became peace and friendship between the two of them American Imperialism: Political and Econimic Expansion In , the beginning of the Americans Western Dominance By the nineteenth century, the imperialistic western powers dominated and influenced most of the world. The Westward shift of power was brought about with the British domination of foreign trade, the advancement of technology and weapons, and business imperialism. The westward shift of power was essential to the rise of global empires and to the start of modernization. Less powerful countries or empires would take ideas from those which were more powerful empires to better advance their society.
The expanding western dominance in the world was essential to increasing globalization. The western military dominance symbolized modernization, which was then thought of as industrialization. As western imperialism spread, modernization also spread; the rest of the world had to compete and did so by imitating western militaristic ideas. By building up their own military using western ideas, the unconquered empires could compete and fight against imperialists. The western imperialists continued to Greed Greed is a scary motive. Imperialism is one-sided, forcing things onto products, environments, cultures.
Imperialism started spreading from Europe in the 16th century, dramatically affecting everything in its past. The effects of past imperialism contributed to a globalized world and still does to this day. Imperialism went through two significant stages and were all affected by greed, whether it was for more land, a bigger economy, or more power. Greed began the growth of European imperialism through the conquering of North America and South America.
European imperialism is what founded the United States and created the first worldly genocide, wiping out Native American tribes, Hispanic colonies, and countless others. Imperialism, then, spread throughout the rest of the world creating one, if not, the biggest genocide in world history in Tasmania. The outcome of early global imperialism did not come into effect until quite some time later, slavery being the first. Eastern countries remained far removed from the dissent fomenting in the West.
Moreover, distance gave the Eastern rulers ample time to implement measures capable of stifling and muting future dissenters, thus, preventing revolutionary reactions within their own countries. Not surprisingly, such tactics and actions helped to greatly delay radical Western ideas from permeating the Russian empire. Similar to his conquests in the West, Napoleon inadvertently introduced concepts of the French Revolution to the vast forces he encountered.
Not only does it demonstrate why an unevenness of revolutions existed within Europe, but it also explains the root causes of nationalism and why nationalist sentiment spread beyond the French boundaries to impact European societies at large. The revolutionary and nationalist sentiments introduced by Napoleon, in turn, aided in the disruption of the balance of power across Europe, and directly resulted in the tense military and political atmosphere that emerged following the Congress of Vienna in Political and institutional changes, however, are not the only revolutions that took place across Europe.
Industrialization, to a large degree, brought economic change to Europe on a scale never before seen. Just as the political revolutions of Europe varied from country to country, so too did the forces of industrialization that favored particular social, economic, and political environments over others. But what factors contributed to its impact? This growth in population was important since it assisted in the development of cities and provided a consumer market to meet the large-scale production capabilities of industry.
Revolutions in transportation and technology, such as the railroad and steamboat, further aided the development of industrialization since they provided a means for consumer goods to be shipped in mass quantities quickly and cost-effectively, across long distances. Similar to the political revolutions taking place across Europe, industrialization varied greatly across the European continent. In Great Britain, for instance, the effects of industrialization were, perhaps, most recognizable since the British Empire fostered an atmosphere conducive to industry and its effects. With an empire that stretched the globe, Britain possessed a large and diverse population, as well as a vast consumer market that helped stimulate the production of mass quantities of goods.
According to historian, Anna Clark, however, the Industrial Revolution also created as many problems as it solved in Great Britain. This is particularly true if the social impact of the revolution is taken into account. While the Industrial Revolution provided many individuals with jobs and an abundance of goods, Clark asserts that it also served to create social strife and gender inequality, and greatly expanded the divide between social classes Clark, Problems such as these greatly helped fuel the social and political revolutions taking place across Britain, and eventually Europe, at large.
Consequently, the social strife created by industry resulted in many of the problems seen in the last half of the nineteenth-century, particularly within Russia and the eventual Soviet Union. Industrialization within France and Austria also provided similar effects, although not nearly as pronounced as the British example. According to Breunig, industrialization greatly aided in the modernization efforts within France. Like the other continental countries, however, Austria faced material shortages and a smaller-scale consumer market that paled in comparison to Great Britain.
Eastern Europe and Russia, in particular, did not experience the full effects of industrialization like Great Britain, France, and Austria until later into the nineteenth-century. With its isolated position in Europe, Russia once again possessed a natural barrier to many of the changes sweeping across the continent. Many of the institutions and policies of Russian governance continued to reflect the absolutist ideals espoused by the Old Regime, even into the twentieth-century.
Serfdom, which amounted to basic elements of slavery, continued unabated until the s in Russia. As a result of this dependence on agriculture and the labor of serfs, Russia did not begin its modernization and industrialization policies until the late nineteenth-century well after the industrial revolutions of Western Europe. Fearful of encroachment and destruction by the hands of the Western powers, Russia sought to catch up to the industrialized and technologically advanced West only because its national interests were at stake.
With the unification and militarization of Germany during the s and s, such fears do not appear erroneous, especially when the aggressiveness of German military policies are taken into account. The failure of Russia to industrialize later, rather than sooner, created many problems for the Russian Empire as it attempted to transition too quickly from an agricultural-based society to industry. By diverting their attention away from agriculture too rapidly, the Russian Empire experienced social strife and economic problems that eventually led to its downfall, following World War I.
As seen, industrialization varied greatly between the powers of Europe since it required multiple factors for its success. Nevertheless, its effects greatly impacted the European continent in a profound manner through the tremendous innovations it inspired in both technology and production. As a result, Europe advanced faster and more quickly than at any other time period in its history. More importantly, however, industrialization helped cultivate and contribute to the rising social and political strife originally inspired by the French Revolution. Through its creation of imbalances in social class, gender, and wealth, industrialization helped set the stage for many of the social problems that existed in the latter part of the nineteenth-century that continued well into the twentieth-century as well.
Similar to the political, social, and industrial revolutions, discrepancies in the policies of imperialism varied across Europe as well. Ostensibly, imperialism expanded and grew as a result of the European desire to spread Christianity to the so-called heathen societies of the world, and as a means to bring civilization to the undeveloped tribes and clans of the globe. More often than not, however, imperial sentiments derived from a deeply racist view of indigenous people whom the Europeans viewed as inferior to their culture and way of life.
Imperialism also derived from a desire to acquire greater resources and raw materials for the various European economies. In this essence, imperialism emerged, in some aspects, as a direct result of the industrial revolutions taking place across Europe during the nineteenth-century. Elements of nationalism also served to fortify imperialism, and greatly inspired the desires for global colonization. Nationalism, with its ideas of patriotism and ethnic superiority, contributed to imperial ideas since it inspired competition among Europeans who desired greater national glory and pride. The spirit of nationalism and imperialism, combined, prompted Europeans to expand their influence and territory through the domination of foreign lands and people.
By scrambling to the far corners of the world to establish colonies, such ambitions aided in the construction of vast empires meant to compete with and overshadow rival European countries. The creation of these empires resulted in immense competition and conflict between the Europeans that directly contributed to the intricate alliance systems of the late nineteenth-century, and the eventual outbreak of World War I in Not surprisingly, the ambitions for colonies and empires were not well founded, as the colonies cost far more to maintain than their actual worth. The brutal subjugation of foreign subjects further exacerbated these problems since these policies were often met with fierce resistance from locals who aimed to disrupt and harass the conquering European powers.
As a result of these problems, Europeans approached the issues of colonization in many of the same ways. Large-scale exterminations, mass-reprisals, and brutality all figured into the European methods of dealing with unruly natives. Nevertheless, some countries implemented more extreme measures than others for the sake of showing their military might and demonstrating their power to effectively control their subjects. As Hull states, part of the prestige in possessing an empire is the ability to maintain order and discipline. This element of imperialism is important to understand, as it helps to explain the different ways that European countries explored and experienced colonization in the nineteenth-century.
While a large portion of the European powers scrambled to take possession of colonies across the world, both Great Britain and France took control of the most colonies due to their economic and military strengths Cocker, Great Britain, with its tremendous naval power and global empire, was perhaps best suited for imperial endeavors, as it possessed the financial and military means to subjugate large foreign populations with relative ease.
Countries such as Belgium, Italy, and Germany, however, all experienced imperialism on a far different and smaller scale as they each struggled greatly to maintain security over their lesser territories. Because of this reason, smaller countries like Germany, which unified under Bismarck in the s and s, were forced to counter these setbacks through the implementation of brutal and often extreme tactics over their colonial subjects. These tactics, largely similar to the British treatment of Aborigines in Tasmania and Australia, helped Germany maintain its status as a world power at the expense of the native Herero people of Southwest Africa.
The German example is particularly interesting since their imperial ambitions involved a level of aggressiveness not easily matched by the other European countries. More importantly, however, the German example also provides an excellent illustration of the differences, and long-term effects that imperialism had on Europe. Of particular interest is the point made by Isabel Hull regarding future conflicts in Europe. Hull makes the point that German aggression in Southwest Africa directly resulted from its extreme military culture that pervaded all elements of its society.
With no social and political oversight, the German military, essentially, acted without any real constraints on its power Hull, Thus, as a result of their success with colonization during the nineteenth-century, Hull asserts that the military extremism developed from imperialism helped inspire German aggression for World War I only a few decades later Hull, These ambitions are not strictly limited to Germany either. In one form or another, imperialism directly influenced future warfare and aggression of the other European powers as well, and contributed greatly to the tumultuous and conflict-driven twentieth-century.
While they certainly varied across the continent in their intensity and overall impact, all of Europe eventually succumbed to forces that destroyed the ideals of the Old Regime. As a result of the changes in politics and economics, the revolutions of the nineteenth-century set the stage for the conflict-filled twentieth-century, as nationalist sentiment inspired European countries to come to terms with their national aspirations and desire to establish vast empires.
The changes wrought by these revolutions, therefore, truly resulted in the fundamental transformation of Europe. Breunig, Charles. Clark, Anna. Cocker, Mark. Hull, Isabel. Raeff, Marc. Rich, Norman. A brief summary of industrialization in France during the nineteenth century. Accessed August 02, Accessed June 05,It will then tell Imperialism In The 19th Century the policy was adopted and Imperialism In The 19th Century how it was rationalized. Words: - Pages: 5. Chimes, Imperialism In The 19th Century. Lament And The Dying Gaul Analysis often came to other countries with Imperialism In The 19th Century intent of converting the people.