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The Centre on Friday declared Tata Sons' subsidiary Talace as the highest bidder for national carrier Air India under the divestment process. The Centre on Friday declared Tata Sons' subsidiary Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogans hypocrisy in proclaiming himself as the "defender" of the Palestinian cause, while maintaining military, diplomatic and economic alliance with Israel, is legendary.
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Feed ingredients from grains and oilseeds are the basis of livestock feeding, but carnivorous fish have difficulty digesting starch, non-soluble carbohydrates, or fibre in these ingredients. They are also more sensitive than livestock to antinutrients and toxins in plant protein ingredients Additional processing steps have been introduced to increase the nutritional value of plant and land animal protein concentrates for fish 59 , 60 , Alternative oil sources—including rapeseed canola oil, palm oil, and poultry fat—are now commonly used substitutes for a portion of fish oil Although farmed salmon remain a good source of omega-3 fatty acids, replacing fish oil with terrestrial oils lowers the omega-3 content in fillets The use of high omega-3 oils from algae or genetically modified oilseeds can reduce fish oil use in salmon feed while maintaining the health benefits to consumers, but this remains economically inefficient and, in some markets, the latter is constrained by weak consumer acceptance 59 , Replacing fishmeal and fish oil in feed with plant-sourced products affects the health of piscivorous aquaculture species through alterations of the microbiome, changes in gut morphology, modification of immune function, and interference with normal function of the endocrine system and maturation 65 , Moving towards full plant-based diets for these species thus increases disease risks.
New tools, including high-throughput technologies metabolomics and proteomics , RNA sequencing, polymerase chain reaction PCR and whole-genome sequencing, have been used since to detect and mitigate these problems Conventional breeding and marker-assisted selection have also been used to improve fish growth and health, and lessons from terrestrial animal breeding, especially poultry, have been used to advance breeding strategies for fish 68 , These tools have thus far been applied to only a few high-valued aquaculture species. The increasing share of plant-based ingredients in mariculture feed types, coupled with the steady growth in feed use in freshwater aquaculture, has led to a new set of controversies surrounding resource use and the environmental effects of terrestrial crop production for aquafeed.
Studies modelling fishmeal replacement with plant-based proteins for example, soy protein concentrate in shrimp 74 and salmon 75 show potential increases in ecotoxicity from fertilizer and pesticide use, rising pressure on freshwater and land resources, and heightened carbon emissions and biodiversity loss from forest clearing—particularly in Brazil. Aquaculture producers seeking to market sustainable products are therefore faced with the unintended environmental and social consequences of their feeding practices. For example, between and , the Norwegian salmon aquaculture industry cut its shares of marine protein in feed from Despite its success in substituting fishmeal and fish oil with plant-based alternatives, including non-genetically engineered soy, the industry has been under pressure to identify new feed sources to eliminate the environmental damages associated with forest conversion to crop production in Brazil 77 , and parts of the industry have already banned the use of Brazilian soy in aquafeed.
Many terrestrial feed ingredients for aquaculture are by-products, such as oilseed protein concentrates extracted from the processing of food products, or protein meals and oils recovered from the processing of livestock and seafood including aquaculture 43 , Recycling processed by-products and food wastes into high protein feed ingredients contributes to the sustainable production of food globally, but life-cycle analysis is needed to measure the net environmental impact. Nonetheless, terrestrial crop demand for aquafeed is expected to rise in the future as the production of finfishes and crustaceans expands in freshwater and marine systems 43 , Rising demand will probably place pressure on natural resources and feed prices.
Research on new feed ingredients has proliferated recently 59 , 74 , 78 , 79 , 80 , 81 and will continue to expand. Single-cell proteins, insect meal, and microalgae represent early stage technologies with potential for replacing fishmeal and fish oil in aquaculture feed Extractive species—molluscs and algae—have doubled in volume since Fig. These groups also provide a wide range of ecosystem services and non-food products 8 , 82 , 83 , 84 , Molluscan aquaculture includes approximately 65 reported species, mainly bivalves clams, oysters, scallops, and mussels 3. Clams, for example, Japanese littleneck carpet shell, Venerupis philippinarum , and Pacific cupped oysters Crassostrea gigas , account for two-thirds of the total.
Bivalves do not require feed inputs, making them attractive candidates for the expansion of sustainable seafood—a point that was made in the previous review 1 and has been argued for more than 30 years 82 , 84 , 86 , 87 , Some high-value farmed molluscs, such as abalone and conchs, are herbivorous and reliant on feed, but they account for only 2. The global production of farmed molluscs grew at an annual rate of 3. In China, however, bivalve culture expanded considerably in response to consumer demand. Between and , the volume of scallops increased by In addition to seafood, outputs from molluscan aquaculture are used in a variety of industrial products, such as fertilizers, construction materials, poultry grit, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals 82 , Bivalves also provide important benthic and coastal ecosystem functions.
By filtering phytoplankton and accumulating nitrogen and phosphorous, they remove nutrients from the ambient environment when harvested. In addition, molluscan aquaculture can provide habitat structure, shoreline stabilization, and local incomes for waterfront communities 82 , 84 , 87 , The role of bivalves as a carbon sink or source remains unclear, however, and research aimed at measuring carbon sequestration and system performance from these systems is ongoing 84 , 90 , The most widely recognized ecosystem service of molluscan aquaculture is the assimilation of excess nutrients from human activities, for example, agriculture, aquaculture, and sewage discharge.
Bivalves filter large volumes of water daily, and their abilities and impacts are species- and area-specific 82 , 84 , Nutrient extraction has two modes: harvest and removal of the bivalves, and increased denitrification near dense populations of wild or farmed bivalves. The ability of bivalves to mitigate coastal eutrophication fully requires large-scale production and a considerable reduction in nutrients at the source is also needed in most cases Efforts have been made to introduce new markets for bivalves that generate offset credits for non-point source pollution, but these markets have yet to develop at scale 84 , 94 , Although bivalves can enhance water purification and water clarity, they also absorb viruses, bacteria, toxic algae, and polluted organic particles from the ambient environment.
Food safety risks are therefore high for molluscs cultivated in polluted environments. Moreover, the introduction of large densities of filter-feeding bivalves to a habitat, whether in suspended or bottom culture, has the potential to impart negative changes in the water quality and benthic ecosystems for example, depletion of phytoplankton and seston, and localized increases in sedimentation rates through bio-deposition and can present serious disease risks 96 , Most negative impacts of bivalve production are site- and species-specific, and uncommon Negative environmental impacts may ensue if aquaculture systems are overstocked, inappropriately sited, or unsustainably managed, as indicated in certain cases in China 99 , Assessment of the influence of bivalve farming on the surrounding environment can be a complex process.
As in many aquaculture systems, however, the application of carrying capacity models , , , and routinely modified best management practices have continuously improved the sustainability of molluscan culture. Since , there has been a growing appreciation for algae dominated by macroalgae or seaweed for improved nutrition, industrial use, and ecosystem services, even in regions outside China, Japan, Korea, and parts of South America, where seaweeds have been consumed as food for centuries 83 , , The majority is used by the food industry sector as polysaccharide additives and functional food ingredients, and by the non-food sector as hydrocolloid products in nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, and to a lesser extent as fertilizers, feed ingredients, biofuels, bioplastics, and other industrial outputs , , Research in recent decades has explored the potential for seaweeds to substitute for terrestrial crop and animal production in protein, fat omega 3 and energy intake—alleviating pressure on freshwater and land resources and biodiversity—but there is little evidence to date that seaweeds can contribute substantially to human macronutrient intake Numerous studies have highlighted the micronutritional and sensory attributes of seaweeds for direct human consumption or as functional foods , but benefits are difficult to quantify because of variation across species, seasons, and coastal environments, and a lack of clear scientific evidence regarding nutritional bioavailability and metabolic processes associated with algal consumption Research has examined the use of microalgal biomass in aquaculture feed as a cost-competitive replacement for fishmeal and the use of macroalgae in dairy and cattle feed to reduce methane emissions , but these types of feed have yet to develop commercially at scale.
Like molluscan aquaculture, seaweed culture is widely recognized for its ecosystem service values beyond the provision of food and feed, yet producers have not been able to capture this value in financial returns Bioremediation is the main ecological service reviewed in the literature. Some seaweed systems receive additional fertilizers, for example, in low-nutrient coastal zones, although fertilization is regulated in Japan and South Korea Ongoing research is also investigating the role of seaweed culture in mitigating ocean acidification, sequestering carbon, and enhancing biodiversity , , In China, studies suggest that large-scale seaweed aquaculture is effective in reducing nitrogen levels, controlling phytoplankton blooms, and limiting the frequency of toxic algal blooms , Considerable variability exists, however, in the potential provision of seaweed ecosystem services across cultured systems, seasons, and scales.
Seaweed aquaculture lags behind other food sectors in breeding, pathogen management, and optimization of production systems for nutrient, light and temperature conditions New seaweed cultivars with higher yield potential, disease resistance, nutritional qualities, and consumer attributes are needed to ensure production growth and increased value for the industry , Overall, progress in research and development for the seaweed industry has not met expectations in recent decades The industry remains fragmented outside Asia mainly China and Indonesia , and competitive pricing constrains net revenues and incentives for innovation This approach has been successful in various segments of terrestrial agriculture.
New global initiatives to promote seaweed production and use will need to tackle critical social, economic, and regulatory constraints, including unethical supply chain activities , food safety considerations, and limited consumer demand 83 , , Over the past 20 years, trends in the production and environmental performance of aquaculture have been positive. Destructive habitat conversion, particularly by shrimp farming in mangrove ecosystems raised in the previous review 1 , has declined markedly since , Challenges to the industry persist, however, including the effects of pathogens, parasites, and pests PPP , pollution, harmful algal blooms, and climate change.
The aquaculture industry has become increasingly vulnerable to these stressors given its rapid expansion, its reliance on the ambient environment, and the changing world in which all food systems operate 43 , Pathogens, parasites, and pests PPP are a chronic risk for the aquaculture sector, and the intensification of production and increased trade and supply chain integration since have amplified these risks Aquaculture species differ in their defences, and although invertebrates lack the adaptive immunity of finfish, their innate immune system—which is certainly not simple or homogenous—is not fully understood , , The gut is an important component of the immune system for finfish, which allows diet and alterations in the microbiome to influence the susceptibility and potential resistance of finfish to disease, whereas the external microbial communities are vitally important for the health status of invertebrates For most high-value and widely traded species, there have been substantial advances in PPP identification, diagnosis, and treatment over the past 20 years, derived in part from innovations in agriculture and human medicine , , , Such science-led disease management options remain largely unavailable for many low-value aquaculture species and low-income regions owing to a lack of product development and prohibitive costs.
Global networks, such as the World Organization for Animal Health, have emerged to facilitate the transfer of scientific knowledge. The aquaculture industry has responded to PPP pressures in recent decades using a variety of approaches. Adoption of best management practices for example, for site and system selection, stocking densities, species rotations, broodstock, and feed quality, filtration, pond, and cage cleanliness, parasite monitoring and removal, culling, zoning, and surveillance has been the most important means of minimizing PPP risks across all types of production systems 25 , Once a pathogen, parasite, or pest is widely recognized in a given system, avoidance through biosecurity is the primary management action available to most aquaculture producers In some systems in which epizootics have caused boom-and-bust cycles, resistant species have been introduced, provided that viable markets exist For example, the aquaculture industry in Thailand transitioned from black tiger shrimp to whiteleg shrimp, largely because of problems with infectious diseases, specifically white spot disease and monodon slow growth syndrome , The use of therapeutants—chemical substances used to prevent and treat pathogens—including antimicrobials, has become a common practice in many aquaculture systems There are no comprehensive data on the nature and extent of therapeutic use in most aquaculture sectors, and both good and bad practices are found worldwide , , , Although improper therapeutant use can pose risks to the health of consumers, workers, cultured organisms, and surrounding ecosystems particularly in open production systems 96 , , the misuse of antimicrobials in aquaculture is especially problematic as it can lead to the emergence and transfer of antimicrobial-resistant genes and bacteria As an alternative, large investments have been made in selective breeding for disease resistance in certain aquaculture species, but this avenue is costly and cannot easily be replicated across species Effective multivalent vaccines have also been introduced for some high-value species such as salmon and trout , and show promise for replication in marine species aquaculture if efficient and cost-effective delivery systems for example, oral or immersion can be developed Advanced water management through recirculating aquaculture systems, as discussed in the following section, represents another important, but relatively costly, technology for controlling PPP In addition, supplementation of feed with nutraceuticals, plant extracts, prebiotics, and probiotics is used to boost fish growth and immunity and serves as a promising alternative to antibiotics—mainly in high-value production systems, but also increasingly in lower-value freshwater systems in Southeast Asia Even in sectors in which major investments and progress have been made in the detection, avoidance, and treatment of PPP, new threats frequently emerge.
For example, the salmon aquaculture industry has successfully controlled some diseases, such as infectious pancreatic necrosis virus and infectious salmon anaemia, but other diseases and parasites for example, salmon rickettsial syndrome and sea lice remain costly for many producers and damaging to wild salmon as treatment options are either unavailable or the target organism has become resistant to treatment , , , Similarly, despite the shift from black tiger shrimp to whiteleg shrimp, emerging diseases such as white spot disease, acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease, shrimp hemocyte iridescent virus, and the microsporidian parasite Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei have resulted in substantial production losses and sustained economic costs to the shrimp industry , , , As aquaculture production expands into new geographies, PPP outbreaks and the risks to human health from therapeutic management approaches will probably increase, particularly in low-income regions.
Studies also project increased risks of aquaculture disease incidence and antimicrobial resistance associated with disease management owing to global warming , , The quantification of trends in PPP is, however, complicated by variation between national and international disease monitoring and treatment regulations and by a lack data for most aquaculture species and production regions In the absence of reliable data, the incidence and management of PPP throughout the global aquaculture industry is and will remain highly unpredictable. Harmful algal blooms are increasing globally with respect to frequency, magnitude, duration, geographical ranges, and species composition, and are driven largely by anthropogenic processes They occur in aquaculture areas worldwide, and their influences on production vary widely depending on species-specific effects 98 , Intensive and poorly managed finfish and crustacean systems can contribute to the emergence of harmful algal blooms, and shellfish, sea urchins, and sea cucumbers are common vectors for toxic microalgae Toxic blooms represent a large economic cost to parts of the industry for which monitoring and management are ineffective.
Climate-driven losses to aquaculture productivity and livelihoods stem mainly from suboptimal growing temperatures, sea-level rise saltwater intrusion , infrastructure damage, droughts and freshwater shortages, and rising feed costs associated with lower crop yields and forage fish landings , Risks to aquaculture infrastructure often drive investments to more protected geographies and systems. In addition, ocean acidification affects shellfish production, mainly at the larval life stage, and is managed through adjustments in pH within the hatchery The literature does not support generalizations of the damages of ocean acidification to shellfish aquaculture given the species-specific responses documented, sparse data, uneven and questionable experimentation, and the complexity of pathways through which species are affected Climate change also amplifies the uncertainties surrounding PPP and harmful algal blooms in aquaculture , , and predictions remain uncertain 98 , In general, scientific studies on climate—aquaculture interactions are based on laboratory-based tolerance data and modelled, but not validated, for commercial aquaculture and thus remain speculative , , , There are no comprehensive data on climate-driven production and economic losses in aquaculture at regional or global scales, and outcomes are contingent on adaptation responses Increased attention has been directed to ecosystem-based management, system design, and new forms of private and public sector governance to manage biological and climate risks, and encourage sustainable aquaculture production 86 , , Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture has shown high bioremediation capacity in China , , but has demonstrated limited commercial success globally despite considerable research interest , Recirculating aquaculture systems and offshore aquaculture have promising growth potential.
Recirculating aquaculture systems are designed to control all environmental facets of production by continually filtering, treating, and reusing water, and thereby increasing operational efficiency and reducing risks from PPP and climate change. Recirculating aquaculture systems have lower direct land and water requirements than conventional aquaculture and enable higher stocking densities but are constrained by large energy requirements, high production costs, waste disposal challenges, and risk of catastrophic disease failures 78 , , Recirculating aquaculture system technologies are typically used when advantages in fish performance outweigh the increased costs—for example, for broodstock and vulnerable early life stages , and recently for full-life cycle production of salmon.
Applications of recirculating aquaculture systems within raceways and channelled pond systems for shrimp aquaculture are also cost-effective in many farming areas given high disease and water-quality risks Grow-out operations using recirculating aquaculture system technology are progressively focused on species with high market value, established production protocols, and production models that are large enough to realize the efficiency benefits of scale , The competitiveness of recirculating aquaculture systems for full grow-out relative to other production systems remains uncertain, however, and there have been several failures in North America and Europe and few large-scale, commercial successes over multiple years Offshore aquaculture in deep and open ocean waters is designed to produce large volumes of fish while minimizing land and freshwater constraints and coastal environmental impacts, such as nutrient pollution and sea lice infestations 78 , Prudent siting is required, however, to avoid conflicts with other marine uses and to ensure the effective dilution of wastes, particularly for large-scale systems Norway and China lead in offshore fish aquaculture with the introduction of massive submersible cages , , Given large capital costs and high risk-to-return ratios, offshore aquaculture in other countries has been confined mainly to small-scale pilot operations cultivating high-valued, carnivorous species.
Offshore environments present a range of operational challenges for example, water depth, strong currents and waves, and storms , which have induced several new design approaches Government regulations have constrained commercial development of offshore aquaculture, particularly in the USA and European Union, because of public controversy regarding its interactions with the marine environment, potential ecological damage, and competing uses of ocean and natural resources , Aspirations to improve the environmental and social performance of aquaculture practices and technologies have led to the emergence of new combinations of public and private regulation, codes and standards ; however, the application of these governance instruments has struggled to match the expanded geographies, volumes, and diversity of aquaculture systems The uneven implementation of government regulation has led to regional disparities in production, growth and system design.
Governments have facilitated aquaculture expansion in many Asian countries, Norway, and Chile, whereas in other regions—including the European Union and USA—governments have constrained growth In very few countries, such as Norway, has strict environmental regulation allowed the sector to expand by coordinating governing institutions to support planned aquaculture growth Uneven regulation has led to disparities in investment and trade, with only a few export nations selling into major net seafood importing markets such as the USA and European Union. For example, 30—50 voluntary labelling, certification and rating schemes have been introduced by non-government organizations and private companies , Farm-level certification is setting new norms for sustainable aquaculture globally , yet the role of certification remains limited by low yet growing levels of producer compliance.
Low levels of compliance have been attributed to insufficient finances, low demand for certified products, poor literacy levels, and inadequate administrative skills required for monitoring and reporting , , and environmental production risks beyond the control of the producer These ratings are involuntary and based on broad-scale assessments at the sector or regional level. Certified and rated production is skewed to major export species. Domestic demand for sustainable products in Asian seafood markets appears to be increasing, driven by food safety concerns , but considerable growth in domestic demand for sustainable seafood is needed to make aquaculture certification and rating systems effective globally States can enhance the success of private governance arrangements by providing capabilities, resources, and minimum regulation to support improvements in farm practices.
They are also increasingly aimed at avoiding spatial conflicts, promoting the trade in bio-derivatives, and creating new ecosystem and climate services markets , , , Over the past 20 years the aquaculture sector has evolved from having a relatively minor role to playing a mainstream part in the global food system. The aquaculture literature reflects the increased attention to food system outcomes, with consumers, value chains, and sustainability criteria progressively shaping the direction of the industry. Continued growth in the sector has important implications for achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Three key patterns emerge in this Review.
First, freshwater fish have a central role in the global production, contributing more than any other aquaculture sub-sector to the total live and edible volume, rural livelihoods, and food security during the past two decades. Because most farmed freshwater fish do not enter the global market, however, there is currently little impetus for producers to engage in sustainable practices with recognized ratings or certification.
Second, marked improvements have been made in the efficiency of marine resource use across all fed species and in the field of fish nutrition. Further gains in these areas may be more difficult and costly to achieve for carnivorous species, but the increasing costs of fishmeal and fish oil that are associated with marine resource limitation will provide continued incentives for innovation. Third, careful siting of aquaculture systems underpins the commercial and environmental success of the industry. Almost all freshwater and marine aquaculture systems interact with the ambient aquatic environment and both benefit from and provide environmental services to the ambient environment as a result.
Prudent siting and scaling are essential for maximizing the ecosystem services provided by farmed extractive species and for mitigating critical challenges to the industry associated with PPP, coastal pollution, and climate change. The wide diversity of aquaculture systems across species, geographies, producers, and consumers prevents the development of a single strategy to achieve sustainable and healthy products. Governance systems need to be designed with clearly articulated, science-informed goals, but without overly proscriptive standards and regulations for realizing those goals. Such flexibility is needed to support the abilities of industries, governments, and non-government organizations to innovate while still providing clear end points and requirements for monitoring, reporting, transparency, and accountability.
The aquaculture sector will continue to face large uncertainties in the future, including climate change, evolving PPP pressures, pandemics, and market disruptions and changes in food systems more broadly. Looking ahead, the effective spatial planning and regulation of aquaculture sites will be paramount for achieving positive environmental outcomes, especially as aquaculture systems increase in scale and production intensifies.
The industry is investigating recirculating and offshore technologies to reduce its exposure to and impact on aquatic environments; however, these systems will require innovative financial and environmental management to have any chance of widespread success. In addition, investments are needed in an array of PPP prevention strategies across different aquaculture sub-sectors, recognizing that treatments after PPP problems emerge are largely futile. Finally, future policies and programmes to promote aquaculture will require a food systems approach that examines nutrition, equity, justice, and environmental outcomes and trade-offs across land and sea.
Tools such as life cycle analysis will need to be refined and deployed to ensure comparability between terrestrial livestock and aquaculture production on the basis of nutritional value and global environmental outcomes. Research along these lines, as advanced through new studies including the ongoing Blue Food Assessment , will undoubtedly be documented in the next year retrospective review. Aquaculture systems can be designed and implemented to be highly sustainable. The human dimension presents both the opportunity and the challenge. Naylor, R.
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Byrd, Elizabeth S A unique perspective on the demand for livestock product attributes. Cabral do Nascimento, Vinicius Magnetic equivalent circuit based permanent magnet characterization. Cahill, Katie Anne Democracy is not enough: Accountability, international organizations, and the politics social good distribution. Calic, Goran Creativity in organizations: Antecedents and outcomes of individual creativity. Campbell, Emily Does mentoring buffer women in science from the effects of perceived discrimination on career outcomes?
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Cassani, Simone Blood circulation and aqueous humor flow in the eye: Multi-scale modeling and clinical applications. Casteloes, Karen S Techniques and technologies for decontaminating chemically contaminated premise plumbing infrastructure. Castillo, Marcelo J Essays in international migration. Cavett, Lee A Using security risk analysis: Is the bring your own device policy becoming a liability risk within healthcare? Cedeno Agamez, Miguel Aging effects in automated face recognition. Cen, Lei A study of security issues of mobile apps in the android platform using machine learning approaches. Cervantes Botero, Victor Hernando An application of contextuality-by-default in a psychophysical double detection experiment.
Chae, Junghoon Visual analytics of location-based social networks for decision support. Chakrabarty, Ankush Supervised learning-based explicit nonlinear model predictive control and unknown input estimation in biomedical systems. Chamberlain, Kyle Purification and preparation of intrinsically disordered proteins for NMR spectroscopy. Chandler, Myles G Identifying predictors of university sales competition performace: A social-cognitive account. Chandrasegaran, Ramaswamy Senthil Kumaran Tools and methods to analyze multimodal data in collaborative design ideation. Chandrasekar, Rohith Development of coherent light sources at the nanoscale using optical metamaterials.
Chan, Kai-Chi On the 3D point cloud for human-pose estimation. Chan, Kevin J The effects of scarring on face recognition. Chatzidakis, Stylianos Cosmic ray muons for spent nuclear fuel monitoring. Chen, Binghe Least-squares finite element method for singularly perturbed problems and the Oseen problem. Chen, Chun-Liang Functional and structural characterization of the mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase and the isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase from Enterococcus faecalis. Chen, Ji Investigating and expanding the functionality of RNA catalysts: Studies of the hepatitis delta virus, the hammerhead, and the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-like ribozymes.
Chen, Keru Physiological aspects of relative changes in nitrogen and plant density stress tolerances over a year period of US maize hybrid introductions. Chen, Long Improvement of treatment for prostate cancer and involvement of Plk1. Chen, Xi Impact of dietary modification on aflatoxicosis in poultry. Chen, Yafang Structural and functional studies of the papain-like protease 2 from mouse hepatitis virus. Chen, Yi Local polynomial chaos expansion method for high dimensional stochastic differential equations.
Chen, Yi-hui Effects of age of learning, family, and social environment on attitude and proficiency in EFL among Taiwanese adults. Chernouski, Libby C Rethinking reference: Towards a holistic approach to linguistic reference. Chisama, Benjamin Franklin Farmers' use of mobile phone technology for agricultural information services in Lilongwe District, Malawi. Chiu, Charles Yicheng The effects of chloride-based deicing chemicals on degradation of portland cement mortars with alkali reactive aggregate.
Choi, Meena A flexible and versatile framework for statistical design and analysis of quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomic experiments. Choi, Mun S Pilot study of the effect of high-protein, renal-appropriate meals during hemodialysis on intradialytic hypotension in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Chojnacki, John T Dynamic triaxial compression experiments on borosilicate and soda-lime glass. Cho, Younghyun Development and evaluation of a watershed-scale hybrid hydrologic model.
Chu, Jou-Mei Mechanical properties of transgenic silkworm silk at high rate impact. Chulis, Kimberly Data mining Twitter for cancer, diabetes, and asthma insights. Clark, Christopher Lewis The investigation of carbon-fluorine bond activation by uranium and evaluation of a tris-oxazoline based tripodal ligand to support low-valent uranium centers. Clinkenbeard, Paige E Teen suicide and other destructive behaviors in contemporary young adult literature: The subjects, the literature, and what it means for educators. Coley, Scott M On the consequences of skeptical theism. Collins, Scott J The impact of global environmental changes on an exotic invasive species, Slliaria petiolata garlic mustard.
Conrad, Alicia E Effects of exposure to agricultural drainage ditch water on survivorship, distribution and abundance of riffle beetles Coleoptera: Elmidae in headwater streams of the Cedar Creek Watershed, Indiana. Cook, Amanda C Essays on health insurance. Cook, Timothy Daniel Expanding M cyclam chemistry; cobalt acetylide complexes for charge delocalization, and functionalized nickel complexes for CO2 reduction.
Corkran, Sydney Cooper Comparison of processing parameters in large and small scale beef processing plants and their impact on Escherichia coli prevalence. Corsten, Anthony Nicholas Evaluation of several pre-clinical tools for identifying characteristics associated with limb bone fracture in thoroughbred racehorses. Coskun, Esra Language and attribution: Women and identity. Coulthard, Glen J A descriptive case study: Investigating the implementation of web based, automated grading and tutorial software in a freshman computer literacy course. Cox, Perry L Lightcraft Previzion in distance education. Crespo, Jonah Greenfield Asset allocation in frequency and in 3 spatial dimensions for electronic warfare application.
Croft, Marcia M The role of African leafy vegetables in food security. Cruz, Lauren M The effects of light intensity and wavelength on in-water orientation of olive ridley sea turtle hatchlings Lepidochelys olivacea. Cui, Wei Design and application of peptide-based fluorescent biosensors for protein tyrosine kinases. Cui, Yan Interval analysis techniques for field mapping and geolocation. Cui, Yi Studies of rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries. Daly, Christine Ann Seeking certainty: Are people who are experiencing relational doubt more sensitive to relationship cues? Dangeti, Sanmathi Tangible interaction as an aid for object navigation in 3D modeling. Dang, Zhuoran Experimental study of two phase upward flow in vertical one-inch pipe.
D'Aquila, Theresa M Intestinal cytoplasmic lipid droplets, associated proteins, and the regulation of dietary fat absorption. Darko, Francis Addeah Essays on Malawian agriculture: Micro-level welfare impacts of agricultural productivity; profitability of fertilizer use; and targeting of fertilizer subsidy programs. Datta, Dhrubajyoti Micromechanical fracture model for ductile-brittle bimaterial interfaces. Davis, Beshaun Jamaal Making meaning in the presence of sub-threshold psychotic symptoms: An investigation of metacognitive capacity in psychometric schizotypy. Davis, John Michael The development and evaluation of a lean six sigma advanced manufacturing methodologies course for aeronautical engineering technology curriculum.
Davis, Nathan J Mechanical dispersion of semi-solid binders in high-shear granulation. Davis, Zachary G Essays on university competition. Deatherage, Scott S Facebook engagement on college students' interpersonal and intrapersonal functioning. Degenstein, John C Fast-pyrolysis of biomass related model compounds: A novel approach to experimental study and modeling. DeKorver, Brittland K Undergraduate students' goals for chemistry laboratory coursework. Deldar, Majid Decentralized multivariable modeling and control of wind turbine with hydrostatic drive-train. DeNardo, Nicholas M Additive manufacturing of carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites.
Deng, Yexin Two-dimensional electronics and optoelectronics: From materials syntheses to device applications. Dennis, Tana Shea Influence of dietary component manipulation and feed management strategies on growth and rumen development of weaned dairy heifers. Deuser, August Robert Technology, nostalgia, and coming-of-age in Salinger's short fiction. DeVilbiss, Frank T Is metabolism goal-directed? Investigating the validity of modeling biological systems with cybernetic control via omic data. Dey, Sayan Role of river bathymetry in hydraulic modeling of river channels. Dhamankar, Nitin S An immersed boundary method for efficient computational studies of nozzles designed to reduce jet noise.
Dhillon, Jaapna The effects of including almonds in an energy-restricted diet on weight, body composition, visceral adipose tissue, blood pressure and cognitive function. Diao, Kelu Hardware accelerated redundancy elimination in network system. Ding, Zi'ang Lagrangian analysis of vector and tensor fields: Algorithmic foundations and applications in medical imaging and computational fluid dynamics.
Doh, Iyll-Joon Development of bacterial colony phenotyping instrument using reflected scatter light. Douilly, Roby 3D dynamic rupture simulation and local tomography studies following the Haiti earthquake. Dow, Ximeng You Nonlinear optical methods for the analysis of protein nanocrystals and biological tissues. Duarte Gomez, Eileen Enid The use of lux enzymes to investigate the association between irreversible protein denaturation and pressure-mediated inactivation of Escherichia coli.
Dubikovsky, Sergey I The association between tolerance for ambiguity and fear of negative evaluation: A study of engineering technology capstone courses. Duffy, Alexandra G Billbug Sphenophorus spp. Du, Juan Complex formation by alpha-lactalbumin and polysaccharide copolymers. Du, Mike Realtime dynamic binary instrumentation. Dundar, Aysegul Learning from minimally labeled data with accelerated convolutional neural networks. Dunn, Jonathan M Nanoscale phonon thermal conductivity via molecular dynamics. Durkes, Abigail Cox The effects of acidified pepsin on porcine vocal fold tissue: Developing a porcine model of laryngopharyngeal reflux disease.
Eadara, Archana Modeling, analysis, and simulation of Muzima fingerprint module based on ordinary and time Petri nets. Easton, Mckay Whetton Density functional theory calculations complement mass spectrometry experiments in the investigation of biomass fast pyrolysis and ion-molecule reaction mechanisms. Eberline, Andrew Dale Perceptions of and experiences with the Indiana teacher evaluation system in physical education. Edalatnoor, Arash Energy optimization of air handling unit using CO2 data and coil performance.
Edelman, Joshua B Secondary instabilities of hypersonic stationary crossflow waves. Edelman, Peter J Interplanetary mission design with applications to guidance and optimal control of aero-assisted trajectories. Ehlers, Shawn Gregory Rearward visibility issues related to agricultural machinery: Contributing factors, potential solutions. Engerer, Jeffrey D Rapid transient cooling utilizing flash boiling and desorption on graphitic foams.
Erdei, Ronald An examination of the employment of the pair programming methodology as a collaborative instructional scaffold on college student procedural learning and programming self-beliefs. Escalante, Lucio Navarro Discovery and functional analyses of Hessian fly effector-encoding genes. Eun, Joonyup Models and optimization for elective surgery scheduling under uncertainty considering patient health condition. Ewetz, Rickard F Synthesis of clock trees with useful skew based on sparse-graph algorithms. Faheem Ibeacon based proximity and indoor localization system. Fahmi, Tazin Stress and immunological evaluations of sea urchin treated with four different nutraceuticals.
Falk, Courtney Knowledge modeling of phishing emails. Fang, Maureen M Integrating precision machining process capability data into product feature design process. Fan, Jingxian Taming tail latency for erasure-coded, distributed storage systems. Fan, Xiaozhe An LED-based image sensor with energy harvesting and projection capabilities college of technology. Feng, Chao Biophysical studies of the allosteric regulatory mechanism of Syk tandem SH2 domains interacting with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs.
Feng, Qingyu Hydrologic and water quality impacts from perennial crop production on marginal lands. Ferialdy, Arfinandi Graph theoretical analysis of the Dynamic Lines of Collaboration model for disruption response. Fezi, Kyle S Modeling transport phenomena and uncertainty quantification in solidification processes. Frappier, Ann M An investigation of composite failure analyses and damage evolution in finite element models. Fu, Jiahong Uncertainty quantification on industrial high pressure die casting process. Fu, Rong Early parental loss, socioeconomic stressors, and health in later life: Evidence for gender disparity. Gabet, Ryan M A comparative forensic analysis of privacy enhanced web browsers. Gaeta, Christopher M Quit playing with your watch: Perceptions of smartwatch use.
Gaffar, Md Explicit and unconditionally stable finite difference time domain methods for general electromagnetic analysis. Gaitonde, Aalok Jaisheela Uday Thermal transport in lithium ion batteries: An experimental investigation of interfaces and granular materials. Gall, Aaron R Magnesium regulates transcription of the mgtA magnesium transporter gene in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium via prolyl-bond formation during translation of the mgtL leader ORF. Ganatra, Yash Yogesh Passive thermal management using phase change materials. Gangaraju, SricharanLochan Machine-to-machine communication for automatic retrieval of scientific data. Ganguly, Samiran Spintronic device modeling and evaluation using modular approach to spintronics.
Gao, Jiejun Nanoparticle toxicity and molecular mechanisms in fish: A case study with silver nanoparticles. Gao, Mengqi Toner usage prediction. Gardner, Nathan W Investigation of an energetic coupling between ligand binding and protein folding. Garrity, Jordan M Design and analysis of a high performance valve. Geesey, Bryce A Utilizing tunable signal interference control topologies with electromechanical resonators. Ge, Jiaqi Sequential pattern mining with uncertain data. Gentry, Patrick L A new reality: Funding formula changes and property tax caps and their effects on the role of the school superintendent in the state of Indiana.
Gettings, Patricia E Understanding the communicative processes of baby boomer women adjusting to retirement: Connecting micro and macro discourses. Ge, Yifan Investigating spatial distribution and dynamics of membrane proteins in polymer-tethered lipid bilayer systems using single molecule-sensitive imaging techniques. Ghahari, Seyedali The effect of ZnO nanoparticles on thermoelectric behavior and fresh properties of cement paste. Ghosh, Arnab Jyoti Analytical investigation of fretting wear with special emphasis on stress based models. Gilland, Kaitlyn Elizabeth Short-term effects of a Western diet on the number of brainderived neurotrophic factor immunoreactive neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate, ventromedial and paraventricular nuclei.
Glas, Zoe Elizabeth Mitigating conflict: A human dimensions analysis of mesopredators and their management. Glavin, Nicholas Robert Ultra-thin boron nitride films by pulsed laser deposition: Plasma diagnostics, synthesis, and device transport. Goblet, Valentine Pascale Phase of flight identification in general aviation operations. Lucian Soca. Gokhale, Vaibhav V Design of a helmet with an advanced layered composite for energy dissipation using a multi-material compliant mechanism synthesis.
Gomes, Joan Implementation of i-vector algorithm in speech emotion recognition by using two different classifiers: Gaussian mixture model and support vector machine. Goodcase, Eric T The role of attachment insecurity in preferred communication modality and relationship satisfaction of romantic relationships initiated online. Gradzewicz, Audrey D How small the apocalypse. Green, Colleen Warwick Bad girls in corsets: Women and the transgressive body in the nineteenth century. Greene, Frederick V The path towards clear and convincing digital privacy rights. Griffin-Oliver, Courtney Janai Set and element-level compatibility of spatial and location-word stimuli paired to eye-movement, vocal, and keypress response modalities.
Groen, Jessica A We'll find the time: Performing traumatic hope through fictions of child maltreatment. Guidry, Brett W Finding the ghost with the machine: Breaking through the assessment center validity ceiling by exploring decisional processes using new sources of behavioral data within virtual assessments. Guo, Tian Effect of bioenergy crops and fast growing trees on hydrology and water quality in the Little Vermilion River Watershed.
Guo, Xingye Thermomechanical properties of novel lanthanum zirconate based thermal barrier coatings - an integrated experimental and modeling study. Gupta, Ravi Digital signal processors as HPC accelerator and performance tuning via static analysis and machine learning. Gupta, Rohinish Modelling and control of a parallel through-the-road plug-in hybrid vehicle. Gurule, Kaitlyn An analysis of digital forensic units. Guzzetti, Davide Coupled orbit-attitude mission design in the circular restricted three-body problem.
Haderlie, Jacob C Modeling methods for merging computational and experimental aerodynamic pressure data. Halimi, Ghulam Hazrat Can Afghanistan achieve self-sufficiency in wheat? Limitations due to market integration. Halimi, Ghulam Hazrat Trade and agriculture policy options to improve the wheat subsector in Afghanistan. Hall, Derrick R. Hammond, Max A The influence of collagen crosslinking and treadmill exercise on the mechanics, composition, and morphology of bone at multiple length scales. Han, Arum How training set and prior knowledge affect preschoolers' perception of quantity and early number learning.
Han, Chang Wan Characterization of heterogeneous catalysts using advanced transmission electron microscopy techniques. Haney, Alison M A matter of faith: The role of religion, doubt, and personality in emerging adult mental health. Han, Jaemin Multi-session Network Coding characterization using new linear coding frameworks. Haria, Hiral Jayantilal A novel mode-switching hydraulic hybrid for an on-highway vehicle: A study of architecture and control. Harris, Mary Beth Women writers and the genealogy of the gentleman: masculinity, authority, and male characters in eighteenth-century English novels by women.
Hassan, Khaled MD. Hawkins, Elizabeth Marie Organizing historical agricultural data and identifying data integrity zones to assess agricultural data quality. Hay, Martha E Design of nitroxide-based radical polymer materials for electronic applications. Hayrapetian, Allenoush Analyzing and evaluating security features in software requirements. Hazlitt, Robert A Synthesis of a malvidinglucoside derivative with a difluoromethylene linkage. Heijnen, Michel J. H Failures in adaptive locomotion in healthy young adults. Heneghan, Joseph M The biology and management of waterhemp in Indiana. Hengge, Neal N Enzymatic liquefaction of untreated corn stover. Herrera Perez, Ruth Marisol Influence of the 3D microenvironment on glioblastoma migration and drug response.
He, Zijian Service-level based response by assignment and order processing for warehouse automation. Hickle, Mark D Synthesis, design, and fabrication techniques for reconfigurable microwave and millimeter-wave filters. Hinh, Robert Tool comparison of semantic parsers. Hinkel, Irina A What is contemporary art? Hjortland, Nicole M Defining the regulatory determinants in substrate catalysis by biochemical, biophysical, and kinetic studies for the development of specific small-molecule inhibitors of ubiquitin specific proteases 7 and Hodde, Whitney The effect of climate change on the economics of conservation tillage: A study based on field experiments in Indiana. Hodson, Stephen L Carbon nanotube thermal interfaces and related applications.
Hoggatt, Will Development of a fluidic mixing nozzle for 3D bioprinting. Holgate, Horane A Development and initial validation of a culturally responsive classroom climate scale. Hollandbeck, Gaelle Florence Effect of volunteer corn density on deoxynivalenol production by Fusarium graminearum in hybrid corn. Hollingshead, Nicole A Examining the influence of Hispanic ethnicity and ethnic bias on medical students' pain decisions. Holzer, Corey T The application of natural language processing to open source intelligence for ontology development in the advanced persistent threat domain. Hoogewind, Kimberly A Climate change and hazardous convective weather in the United States: Insights from high-resolution dynamical downscaling.
Houston, Saori M A longitudinal study of the development of fluency of novice Japanese learners: Analysis using objective measures. Houtman, John A Design and plan of a modified hydroponic shipping container for research. Hou, Yangyang Low rank methods for optimizing clustering. Hrycik, Allison R Spatio-temporal diet variation and movement decisions of Lake Erie yellow perch. Huang, Hsin-Ying Examination and utilization of rare features in text classification of injury narratives. Huang, Shouyuan Parametric and design analysis on thermoelectric generators. Huang, Wanfeng Concurrent detection and isolation of cellular and molecular biomarkers. Huang, Wenhan Parallelized ray casting volume rendering and 3D segmentation with combinatorial map.
Huang, Yuqian Pattern exploration and event detection from geo-tagged tweets. Huang, Zhi Vehicle sensor-based pedestrian position identification in V2V environment. Huang, Zun Wave propagation and imaging in structured optical media. Huckabee, Alexis G In-column polymer modifications: Advancing polymer bonded phases. Hudspeth, Matthew C Multi-axial failure of high-performance fiber during transverse impact. Hughes, Kyle M Gravity-assist trajectories to Venus, Mars, and the ice giants: Mission design with human and robotic applications. Hurt, Moriah J Evaluating the physical welfare of dogs in commercial breeding facilities in the United States. Hussein, Ahmed Mohamed Abd-elhaffiez Effective memory management for mobile environments. Hu, Yaowu Laser shock imprinting of metallic nanostructures and shock processing of low-dimensional materials.
Huynh, William B Gesture based non-obstacle interaction on mobile computing devices for dirty working environment. Ibrahim, Md Phyllanthus niruri supplemented diet as a modulator of stress and immune responses in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, reared in inland recirculating and aquaponics systems. Irven, Donovan Being and literature: The disclosure of place in modernity. Issa, Salah F Exploring the cause of injury or death in grain entrapment, engulfment and extrication. Jacobs, Elin M Spatiotemporal patterns of hydroclimatic drivers and soil-water storage: Observations and modeling across scales. Jacobs, Nicholas L Analysis of feedback control applied with command shaping to minimize residual vibration.
Jahan, Mafruha Options to improve energy efficiency for educational building. Jahan, Suchana Akter Optimization of conformal cooling channels in 3D printed plastic injection molds. James Stephen, Julian Securing cloud-based data analytics: A practical approach. Jarmusch, Alan Keith Ambient ionization - mass spectrometry: Advances toward intrasurgical cancer detection. Jauregui, Luis A Electronic transport in nano-devices based on graphene and topological insulators. Javagal, Suhas Raveesh User-centric workload analytics: Towards better cluster management. Jeon, Bonggil A method for selecting HVAC retrofit solutions for existing small- and medium-sized commercial buildings.
Jeong, Jun Young Analysis of structural and functional brain networks. Jiang, Zhengping Multi-scale simulations for high efficiency low power nanoelectronic devices. Jiao, Peng Dynamic green split optimization in intersection signal design for urban street network. Jin, Jonghoon Fast and robust convolutional neural networks optimized for embedded platforms. Jin, Zhenong Crop modeling for assessing and mitigating the impacts of extreme climatic events on the US agriculture system.
Ji, Yanzhu Transposable element and host dynamics in mammals and birds as revealed by transcriptomic and genomic evidence. Johnson, Scott C Observability and observer design for switched linear systems. Jones, Gavin Robert Accessible surface area of common silica particle types. Jones, Kyle E Hip hop, circulation, and the associational life of Peruvian youth. Jung, Wonyeong Computational investigation of force generation, relaxation, and remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. Kaczay, Kaitlin R A comparison of the efficacy of radiant and immersion frying using hash brown patties as a model food matrix. Kadasala, Naveen Reddy Synthesis, characterization, and application of magnetic gold nanoclusters.
Kalyanam, Rajesh Interactive logical analysis of planning domains. Kambatla, Karthik Shashank Methods to improve applicability and efficiency of distributed data-centric compute frameworks. Kanani, Geoffrey H An examination of how specific support structures impact the adjustment process of sub-Saharan African students in two Midwestern institutions of higher education. Utilitarian Situations. Kang, Jisun Improving a mesh segmentation algorithm based on non-negative matrix factorization.
Kang, Ji Yun Help-seeking intention among college students: Cross-cultural study between East Asian international students and domestic students in the Unites States. Karki, Anju Investigating the role of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor MIST1 in pancreatic diseases. Karyadi, Kenny A The effects of alcohol odor cues on food and alcohol attentional bias, cravings, and consumption. Kaseb, Ahmed S A cost-effective cloud-based system for analyzing big real-time visual data from thousands of network cameras. Katzman, Tanya Lynn The use of stable isotopes and particulate matter in the investigation of local and regional atmospheric chemistry. Kebede, Ammanuiel A Asphalt pavement preservation using rejuvenating fog seals.
Keith, Melissa G Autonomy and motivation: The impact of task difficulty. Keller, Christine E. M Biochemical changes in animal models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Kendall, Jordan D Hydrocode modeling of oblique impacts into terrestrial planets. Kesari, Aditi Factors affecting transduction efficiency of pseudotyped viral vectors incorporating alphaviral glycoproteins. Khan, Ishita K Protein function, diversity and functional interplay. Khan, MD Mursalin Assessment of the role of elderberry extract in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, as a stress reducing and immune stimulating nutraceutical in-vitro and in-vivo.
Khan, M. Ryyan Perspectives and designs towards solar cell performance limits. Khan, Munib Ahmad Defenders of patrimony a short story collection. Khan, Raza A A high-performance communication topology for decentralized protocols. Kharangate, Chirag Rajan Experimental, theoretical and computational modeling of flow boiling, flow condensation and evaporating falling films. Khatri, Hari Raj Synthetic studies of heparan derivatives: Glycosyl couplings and post-glycosylative modifications. Khern-am-nuai, Warut Essays on value creation in online marketplaces. Kiernicki, John J Redox-active ligand uranium complexes for approaches to multi-electron chemistry. Kim, Dae Woo New marked point process models for microscopy images. Kim, Huisung Investigation of multimodal forward scatter phenotyping from bacterial colonies.
Kim, Hyung Suk Implementing a wireless monitoring solution for a biomechanical telemetry system. Kim, Janghyun Evaluating the performance of passive chilled beams with respect to energy efficiency and thermal comfort. Kim, Jeonghwan High extinction ratio subwavelength 1D infrared polarizer by nanoimprint lithography. Kim, Jongbum Plasmonic devices based on transparent conducting oxides for near infrared applications. Kim, Jooho Examining consumers' risky food consumption behavior in restaurants. Kimmey, David L Feature extraction to improve nowcasting using social media event detection on cloud computing and sentiment analysis. Kim, Min Jung Restaurant menu design and food choice process.
Kim, Nicholas Nakjoo Optimal design of sound absorbing systems with microperforated panels. Kirby, Adam Michael Comparing policy decisions for active shooters using simulation modeling. Kissick, Ashley Lorraine Functional diversity enhances detection of ecosystem stability and resolution of predator-prey interactions within a multitrophic community. Kittell, David E Analysis and simulation of small scale microwave interferometer experiments on non-ideal explosives.
Kloster, Kyle Graph diffusions and matrix functions: Fast algorithms and localization results. Koirala, Damodar Mass spectrometric characterization of remotely charged amino acids and peptides. Komanduru, Abi Remote sensing of snow using bistatic radar reflectometry. Kong, Xiangjia An exploratory study of Chinese leave-taking. Konopa, Daniel J Thermal and optical characterization of high power laser diodes. Konstantzos, Iason A human-centered approach for the design of perimeter office spaces based on visual environment criteria. Kranz, William D Advances in solid phase microextraction for the analysis of volatile compounds in explosives, tire treatments, and entomological specimens.
Krishnan, Ankita The broader autism phenotype: Associations with acculturative stress among Asian international students. Kuhlenhoelter, Alisha M Acute impact of a single session of thermotherapy on the expression of angiogenic regulators in human skeletal muscle. Kulakhmetov, Marat F Upscaling ab-initio chemistry models to non-equilibrium flow simulations. Kulczar, Chris The development of preclinical strategies for facilitation of lead candidate selection.Mcgowan, Eileen M Significance of water -related features on Mars. Octonauts Special: The Over Under Adventure The The Tell Tale Heart Fear Analysis to explore Antarctica becomes a desperate rescue Kim Jong Un Animal Farm Analysis a group of sea stars and urchins is threatened by a disadvantages of relational databases underwater icicle that Kim Jong Un Animal Farm Analysis freeze creatures on the seabed. The most important arthropods that are involved in the process include carrion beetlesmites,  Kim Jong Un Animal Farm Analysis the flesh-flies Kim Jong Un Animal Farm Analysis and blow-flies Calliphoridaesuch as the green bottle flies Kim Jong Un Animal Farm Analysis birthdate compatibility calculator the summer. Kormanik, Nicholas Kim Jong Un Animal Farm Analysis.