✍️✍️✍️ Persuasive Essay On Shintoism

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Persuasive Essay On Shintoism



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What is Shinto?

Students review one-, two-, and multi-step equations, formally reasoning about each step using properties of equality. Students extend this reasoning to systems of linear equations. Students use descriptive statistics to analyze data before turning their attention to transformations and the relationship between Algebra and Geometry on the coordinate plane. Students then embark on a deep study of the applications of probability and develop advanced reasoning skills with a study of similarity, congruence, and proofs of mathematical theorems. Students explore right triangles with an introduction to right triangle trigonometry before turning their attention into the geometry of circles and making informal arguments to derive formulas for the volumes of various solids.

Prerequisite: Secondary Math I. First, students relate visual displays and summary statistics to various types of data and to probability distributions with a focus on drawing conclusions from the data. Then, students embark on an in-depth study of polynomial, rational, and radical functions, drawing on concepts of integers and number properties to understand polynomial operations and the combination of functions through operations. This section of instruction builds to the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra. Students then expand the study of right-triangle trigonometry they began in Mathematics II to include non-right triangles, developing the Laws of Sines and Cosines. Finally, students model an array of real-world situations with all the types of functions they have studied, including work with logarithms to solve exponential equations.

As they synthesize and generalize what they have learned about a variety of function families, students appreciate the usefulness and relevance of mathematics in the real world. Relevant, project-based learning activities cover stimulating topics such as personal financial planning, budgeting and wise spending, banking, paying taxes, the importance of insurance, long-term investing, buying a house, consumer loans, economic principles, traveling abroad, starting a business, and analyzing business data. Offered as a two-semester course for high school students, this course encourages mastery of math skill sets, including percentages, proportions, data analysis, linear systems, and exponential functions.

With an emphasis on mathematicalreasoning and argument, this advanced course scaffolds rigorous content with clear instruction and an array of scaffolds for learning, providing students with a deep understanding of topics such as matrices, functions, graphing, logarithms, vectors, and conics. The course concludes with a brief introduction to calculus that exposes students to limits, continuity, derivatives, and the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.

Throughout this one-semester course, students assess individual fitness levels according to the five components of physical fitness: cardiovascular health, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition. Personal fitness assessments encourage students to design fitness programs to meet their individual fitness goals. Designed for high school students, this informative and engaging course encourages students to recognize that they have the power to choose healthy behaviors to reduce risks.

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Participants in this class will engage in daily activities and consistently maintain activity logs. Students will learn basic principles about strength training and and how to create workouts designed to strengthen and tone muscles and increase overall fitness. A total of 40 Yoga practice sessions is required for full credit. Principles of healthy living and respect for the outdoors will be emphasized. Participation in outdoor fitness activities will be required.

As climate change and energy conservation become increasingly more prevalent in the national discourse, it will be important for students to understand the concepts and causes of our changing Earth. Intended for middle school students, Earth Systems is a two- semester course that will provide a solid foundation for understanding the physical characteristics that make the planet Earth unique and will examine how these characteristics differ among the planets of our solar system. This is a year-long course that encompasses traditional concepts in biology and encourages exploration of new discoveries in this field of science. The components include biochemistry, cell biology, cell processes, heredity and reproduction, the evolution of life, taxonomy, human body systems, and ecology.

Through unique activities and material, high school students connect scientific theory and concepts to current, real-world dilemmas, providing them with opportunities for mastery in each of the segments throughout the semester. The course covers the basic concepts of chemistry and includes 18 virtual laboratory experiments that encourage higher-order thinking applications. The components of this course include chemistry and its methods, the composition and properties of matter, changes and interactions of matter, factors affecting the interactions of matter, electrochemistry, organic chemistry, biochemistry, nuclear chemistry, mathematical applications to understand chemistry problems, and applications of chemistry in the real world.

Prerequisite: Secondary Math II. Engaging lessons introduce theories and experiments and encourage students to develop the knowledge and understanding necessary to support conclusions with numerical results. Inspiring students to relate knowledge to real-world applications, the course connects basic principles to more complex ideas in many fascinating areas: thermal energy,vibrations and waves, light and refraction, sound, electricity, and magnetism. The course gives a description of astronomical phenomena using the laws of physics.

The course treats many standard topics including planets, stars, the Milky Way and other galaxies, black holes to more esoteric questions concerning the origin of the universe and its evolution and fate. As they progress through each unit, students learn about the major body systems, common diseases and disorders, and the career specialties associated with each system. Students investigate basic medical terminology as well as human reproduction and development.

The knowledge and skills gained in this course will provide students entering the healthcare field with a deeper understanding of the application of the language of health and medicine. Starting with the impact of agriscience on human culture, the course then delves into managing seed stock, quality, and storage. In addition, learners will discover how plants function, the role of animals, and the use of chemicals.

Special attention is paid to safety, promoting a healthy environment, and designing for sustainability. Whether you want to step into the wild side of veterinary medicine or just take care of the furry dogs and cats down your street, Wildlife Biology will show you how to care for domestic, farm, and wild animals and diagnose their common diseases and ailments. Learn how different veterinary treatments are used and developed to improve the lives of animals and, as a result, the lives of those people who treasure them. If you have always been drawn to the world of our furry, scaly, and feathered friends, this may be just the course for you!

Learn about the oceanic and freshwater processes, changes in ecosystems, and the connection between water and weather. You will also learn about energy in the ocean, including the principles of fluid dynamics, the role of hydrostatic pressure, the law of conservation of energy, and the measurable properties of waves. Through the use of scientific inquiry, research, measurement, and problem solving, you will conduct various scientific procedures that will lead to an increased level of knowledge about Marine Science.

Learn about the importance of adaptation for survival and the role of natural selection in evolution. What populations survive and thrive in the ocean? You will also learn about the exciting career opportunities that exist in the world of Marine Science. This is a 1-semester course. Social Studies. Divided into two semesters, this high school-level course will challenge students to develop geographic skills, including learning to interpret maps, analyze data, and compare theories. Students investigate the development of classical civilizations in the Middle East, Africa, Europe, and Asia, and they explore the economic, political, and social revolutions that have transformed human history. At the end of the course, students conduct a rigorous study of modern history, allowing them to draw connections between past events and contemporary issues.

The use of recurring themes, such as social history, democratic government, and the relationship between history and the arts, allows students to draw connections between the past and the present, among cultures, and among multiple perspectives. Throughout the course, students use a variety of primary and secondary sources, including legal documents, essays, historical writings, and political cartoons to evaluate the reliability of historical evidence and to draw conclusions about historical events.

As students examine each era of history, they will analyze primary sources and carefully research events to gain a clearer understanding of the factors that have shaped U. In early units, students will assess the foundations of U. In later units, students will examine the effects of territorial expansion, the Civil War, and the rise of industrialization as they assess the outcomes of economic trends and the connections between culture and government. As the course draws to a close, students will focus their studies on the causes of cultural and political change in the modern age.

Throughout the course, students will learn the importance of cultural diversity while examining history from different perspectives. The course begins by establishing the origins and founding principles of American government. After a rigorous review of the Constitution and its Amendments, students investigate the development and extension of civil rights and liberties. Lessons also introduce influential Supreme Court decisions to demonstrate the impact and importance of constitutional rights. The course builds on this foundation by guiding students through the function of government today and the role of citizens in the civic process and culminates in an examination of public policy and the roles of citizens and organizations in promoting policy approaches.

Throughout the course, students examine primary and secondary sources, including political cartoons, essays, and judicial opinions. Students also sharpen their writing skills in shorter tasks and assignments, and practice outlining and drafting skills by writing full informative and argumentative essays. This interactive course, designed for high school students, covers cultural diversity and conformity, basic structures of society, individuals and socialization, stages of human development as they relate to sociology, deviance from social norms, social stratification, racial and ethnic interactions, gender roles, family structure, the economic and political aspects of sociology, the sociology of public institutions, and collective human behavior, both historically and in modern times.

Students analyze human growth, learning, personality, and behavior from the perspective of major theories within psychology, including the biological, psychosocial, and cognitive perspectives. From a psychological point of view, students investigate the nature of being human as they build a comprehensive understanding of traditional psychological concepts and contemporary perspectives in the field.

Course components include an introduction to the history, perspectives, and research of psychology; an understanding of topics such as the biological aspects of psychology, learning, and cognitive development; the stages of human development; aspects of personality and intelligence; the classification and treatment of psychological disorders; and psychological aspects of social interactions.

Throughout the course, students apply critical-thinking skills while making practical economic choices. Students also master literacy skills through rigorous reading and writing activities. Students analyze data displays and write routinely and responsively in tasks and assignments that are based on scenarios, texts, activities, and examples. In more extensive, process-based writing lessons, students write full-length essays in informative and argumentative formats.

This course focuses on the major religions that have played a role in human history, including Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, Shintoism, and Taoism. Students trace the major developments in these religions and explore their relationships with social institutions and culture. The course also looks at some of the similarities and differences among the major religions and examines the connections and influences they have. This is a wonderful way to explore diversity and connect with a broader world view. Each unit consists of an ongoing adventure story, a new vocabulary theme and grammar concept, numerous interactive games reinforcing vocabulary and grammar, reading and listening comprehension activities, speaking and writing activities, cultural presentations covering major Spanish-speaking areas in Europe and the Americas, and assessments.

In addition, students read significant works of literature in Spanish and respond orally or in writing to these works. Continuing the pattern and building on what students encountered in the first two years, each unit consists of a new vocabulary theme and grammar concept, numerous interactive games reinforcing vocabulary and grammar, reading and listening comprehension activities, speaking and writing activities, and multimedia cultural presentations covering major Spanish-speaking areas in Europe and the Americas. Higher proficiency levels are also sought in grammar, vocabulary, and idiomatic expressions than in previous classes. Culture continues to be emphasized. Students should be working toward being prepared for third year Spanish at the university level.

Each unit consists of an ongoing adventure story, a new vocabulary theme and grammar concept, numerous interactive games reinforcing vocabulary and grammar, reading and listening comprehension activities, speaking and writing activities, and multimedia cultural presentations covering major French-speaking areas in Europe and across the globe. Each unit consists of an ongoing adventure story, a new vocabulary theme and grammar concept, numerous interactive games reinforcing vocabulary and grammar, reading and listening comprehension activities, speaking and writing activities, and cultural presentations covering major French-speaking areas across the globe, and assessments.

In addition, students read significant works of literature in French, and respond orally or in writing to these works. Continuing the pattern, and building on what students encountered in the first two years, each unit consists of a new vocabulary theme and grammar concept, numerous interactive games reinforcing vocabulary and grammar, reading and listening comprehension activities, speaking and writing activities, and multimedia cultural presentations covering major French-speaking areas in Europe and the Americas.

American Sign Language 1a: Introduction will introduce you to vocabulary and simple sentences, so that you can start communicating right away. Importantly, you will explore Deaf culture — social beliefs, traditions, history, values and communities influenced by deafness. American Sign Language 1b: Learn to Sign will introduce you to more of this language and its grammatical structures. You will expand your vocabulary by exploring interesting topics like Deaf education and Deaf arts and culture. Learners will also continue to establish their communication skills and foster their understanding of deaf culture.

In addition to learning classifiers, glossing, and mouth morphemes, students will explore vocabulary for descriptions, directions, shopping, making purchases, and dealing with emergencies. The course consists of lesson days formatted in an intuitive calendar view, which can be divided into two day semesters. The course represents an ideal blend of language learning pedagogy and online learning. Each week consists of an ongoing adventure story, a new vocabulary theme and grammar concept, numerous interactive games reinforcing vocabulary and grammar, reading and listening comprehension activities, speaking and writing activities, and multimedia cultural presentations covering major Chinese-speaking countries.

Fulfills General Education Fine Arts requirement. Includes identification of major art forms, brief survey of art history, investigation of art criticism, introduction of various media, and identification of elements and principles of art. Formulate a working knowledge of the elements and principles of art and design and how these things, when combined with the unique qualities of different media, contribute to the meaning and message of art. Acquire the vocabulary necessary to address issues and concepts in art using both oral and written skills.

Broadly define movements and periods in art history and to locate works of art within their historical and cultural contexts. Differentiate between viewing a work of art emotionally and applying analytical techniques to interpret art. Access, interpret, evaluate and synthesize information using multiple resources, including physical libraries, online information and art databases. Explore how and why works of art can influence human experiences, making connections between art, culture and everyday life. Course fee required. Introduction to the history, mechanics, and applications of digital photography as well as basic photographic techniques and compositional skills.

Course objectives will be met through a combination of lectures, viewing the work of master photographers, class assignments, in-class critiques of student work, and time spent outside of the classroom shooting as a group. Each student must have access to a digital camera with manual modes. Understand the visual and written discourse of photography history and practicality of digital photography and apply this to the evaluation of photographs as an art form and aesthetic sense. Create digital photographs by applying the basics of digital camera operation, by using the camera as a tool for creative expression and visual thinking, and by manipulating formal elements to achieve better compositions.

Design exhibition-quality photographs through employment of craftsmanship, critiques, and professional presentation. Fulfills General Education Life Sciences requirement. Covers basic anatomy and physiology of humans for pre-health science majors. Focuses on the general structure and function of the human body including tissues, organs, and systems. Through lecture, videos, models, quizzes, and tests, students become familiar with how the human body functions. Inclusive Access Course Material electronic book fees may apply, see Fees tab under each course section for details.

Explain the process and methods of science, including asking testable questions, using inductive and deductive reasoning in forming hypotheses and in making reliable predictions. Explain and apply major concepts of life organisms including: the chemistry of life, the cell, the genetic basis of life, and human evolution. Describe the function and processes of the major body systems including: cardiovascular, immune, digestive, urinary, muscular, skeletal, nervous, endocrine, and reproduction, as well as the coordination between systems in maintaining body homeostasis. Hands-on instruction develops computer skills to access, create, analyze, process and deliver information, including study of computer concepts, operating systems, e-mail, word processing, spreadsheet, and presentation software.

Provides opportunities to write and revise a number of essays. Activities, library research, portfolios, writing to a style guide, and tests may also be used to prepare students to write college level papers. Includes practical writing instruction and in-class workshops. NCAA approved Provides opportunities to analyze and write academic papers, including the research-supported essay, through writing and revising a number of essays. Other activities, such as portfolios, library research, and tests may be used to help students improve their writing of advanced-level papers.

Successful students will demonstrate competence in the use of standard written English, in analyzing texts, in correctly paraphrasing, summarizing and quoting source material, and in appropriately citing the work of others. For all students who would like to increase their enjoyment of literature. Provides basic understanding of novels, short stories, poems, plays, and essays. Students will learn to read analytically and write critically.

Course offered in rotation, check class schedule. Examine ethical values and critically discuss philosophical concerns in literature. Create both formal critical essays and informal responses to concerns expressed in course texts. Apply the techniques of effective collaboration through successful completion of various group activities. Open to all students who spend money or plan to spend money. Wise decisions about earning, saving, borrowing and investing will enable you to obtain your personal goals while enjoying a comfortable lifestyle.

This course is designed to help you develop the skills, knowledge, and resources needed to be effective at managing your money. Economics, finance and applied math are essential disciplines used in this course, while political science, law, sociology, and psychology are among the disciplines that inform the public policy issues related to various personal financial topics we will cover. Spans human origins and early civilizations to the emergence of European Empires and the early explorations of the Americas up to C. Analyze the political, economic, cultural and social developments in world history from the establishments of early civilizations to C. Explain long-term and large-scale historical change. Compare and contrast the interaction among salient civilizations.

Evaluate the causes and effects of particular historical events. Improve their written and oral communication skills through an article report and class discussions. Read and analyze primary and secondary sources. Students will study the diversity of global experiences and the emergence of the modern globalized economy. Explain how and why peoples of the world existed, acted, and thought in the context of historical convergences, divergences, and interrelations among civilizations. Construct analytical and cogent interpretations of global historical issues based on evidence which fosters critical thinking skills and works toward developing an understanding of how history has been recorded and continues to be interpreted. Chronological survey of the first half of the American experience, beginning with the Paleo-Indian cultures and emphasizing American Independence, development of the Constitution, the emergence of Jacksonian democracy, and the causes of the Civil War, through post-Civil War Reconstruction.

Includes social, political, economic, cultural, and diplomatic developments throughout this period. Chronological survey of the second half of the American experience, beginning with the collapse of post-Civil War Reconstruction and emphasizing the growth of the U. Includes the social, political, economic, cultural, and diplomatic developments throughout this period.

Prepares students for courses that fulfill the General Education Math requirement. Concepts emphasized include the properties of the real number system, sets, functions, graphs, algebraic manipulations, linear and quadratic equations, systems of equations, and story problems. Students will be expected to reason mathematically and solve mathematical problems. Successful completion of the course gives students good preparation for college-level Math courses. Inclusive Access Course Material electronic book fees may apply.

At the successful conclusion of this course, students will be able to: 1. Perform basic mathematical operations on rational numbers with and without a calculator, including fractions, percentages, and decimals. Demonstrate the concept of equivalence including the use of variables to define relationships. Use functions to analyze models of real-world problems including polynomial and quadratic equations. Prerequisites: ACT math score of 18 or higher or equivalent placement score. Focuses on development of analytical problem solving skills through the application of various mathematical concepts to real-life problems. Topics of study include: modeling with algebra; geometry; logic; financial math; right triangle trigonometry indirect measurement ; probability and statistics.

Introduction to basic concepts and methods used in statistical data analysis, includes descriptive statistics, sampling, and inferential methods while emphasizing problem solving and critical thinking. StatCrunch is used to perform statistical calculations, organize and analyze data, and construct graphs. Required for Utah Level 2 Math Endorsement. Reviews fundamental algebra; explores polynomial and rational functions; introduces exponential and logarithmic functions and applications; conics; systems of linear equations and applications; arithmetic and geometric sequences and series, binomial coefficients and the Binomial Theorem; basic principle of counting.

Graph, analyze, find intercepts, maxima, and minima of polynomial, rational, exponential, and logarithmic functions. Find terms and sums of arithmetic and geometric sequences and series, compute the terms of a binomial expression, solve counting problems. This course covers the essential facts of national government in the United States, this course satisfies state law, requiring examination of the United States Constitution.

This course surveys the founding of the government of the United States; the United States Constitution; and the Legislative, Executive, and Judicial branches of government. This course also covers aspects such as, politics, elections, lobbying, foreign policy, and national security. This course will aid students in gaining a comprehensive understanding of the federal system and federalism. Students will be instructed through a variety of methods such as, lectures, student debate papers, discussions, and audio-visual means. Successful students will demonstrate a reasonable understanding of the history, principles, form of government, and economic system of the United States.

Budding artists learn drawing skills using lines, light sources, and motion while discussing and analyzing famous works of art. This course explores drawing skills such as perspective and color theory. Fifth grade artists explore contour, naturalism, and linear perspectives. Coding Tynker Tynker provides everything needed to learn computer programing in a fun way. Keyboarding Typing Agent Learn to type. Love the fun. Students will learn: Critical keyboarding skills. How to type code. Internet safety. Introduction to word processing. And more! Show Me TA 5. Students gain independence in reading, learn more sight words, and become more adept at distinguishing vowel sounds.

Grade 2 students add more sight words and increase fluency by studying additional vowel sounds, blends, and suffixes. Students read cross-curricular texts to increase subject knowledge and practice complex phonics concepts. Students prepare for the rigor of middle school by studying complex sentence structure and reading challenging non-fiction. Lexia products are centered on a personalized approach to learning that gives students more control over the time, place, path, and pace of their learning. Reading Eggs makes learning to read interesting and engaging for kids, with great online reading games and activities. Reading Eggspress makes reading real books, improving spelling skills and building reading comprehension highly engaging for kids.

Students continue learning addition and subtraction—now with two digit numbers. Second graders study 3-digit numbers, addition and subtraction to , mental Math, data collection, money, time, and shapes. Engaging projects include conducting a plant growth experiment and organizing a fundraising event. Lessons employ active digital resources such as a digital place-value chart, used with base-ten blocks to model addition and subtraction, and a digital beam balance to practice mental Math and estimation. Math dives deeper into addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of whole numbers, fractions, data, and graphing; measuring angles and symmetry; and calculating perimeter and area of square and rectangles.

The Singapore Math Method introduces students to multiplying two-digit numbers by two digit numbers, practicing long division with and without remainders, adding subtracting and multiplying unlike fractions and mixed numbers, working with decimals, graphing on a coordinate plane, and calculating the volume of solid figures. Reflex Math helps students of all ability levels to develop fluency with their basic facts in addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

Intuitive and powerful reporting — Educators have everything they need to easily monitor and support student progress in Reflex. Anytime, anywhere access — Students can build fluency with Reflex anywhere there is an Internet connection. Fun — Reflex is game-based and highly motivational so students enjoy the learning process. Outstanding results — Students of all ages and ability levels make great gains with Reflex. Mathseeds teaches kids the core math and problem solving skills needed to be successful at school with fun, highly interactive and rewarding lessons.

Young learners focus on ways to be more active. Physical Education focuses on how to become more fit and healthy. Children learn about warm-up and cool down, water safety, goal setting, nutrition, muscle strength and flexibility and are required to participate in regular physical activity. Students learn age-appropriate motor, non-locomotor, and manipulative skills, and are required to participate in regular physical activity. Students are required to participate in regular physical activities.

Students are introduced to the concepts of personal safety, healthy behaviors, nutrition, communication, disease prevention, basic anatomy, and physiology. First graders develop a basic understanding of the aspects of health. First graders investigate, analyze and interpret data, construct explanations and design solutions to demonstrate grade-level proficiency. Second graders identify and perform guided investigations about the properties of matter to create a matter scavenger hunt and use engineering principles to design a solution to prevent or slow natural erosive processes that changes the shape of the land. Virtual labs provide an opportunity for students to practice gathering evidence and defending their claims.

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Students see photographs every day on television, on the Internet, and in magazines and newspapers. This course explores the main concepts of art, expression, and creativity as it helps students answer questions such as what is art, and how and why people respond to art. This course is designed to attract and reach a broad and diverse range of students, including those who may have never considered programming. Students will learn and understand the basic structure, elements, and logic of computer coding.

Course material will be in CodeHS. Students will have an introduction to Digital Information and Number systems. Prerequisite: Creative Coding. A course designed to increase awareness of college and career pathways through simulations and project-based experiences. This course is a foundation to computer literacy. Students grow as readers, writers, and thinkers in this middle school course. In this course, students build on their knowledge and blossom as thoughtful readers and clear, effective writers.

This course begins with an in-depth study of proportional reasoning during which students utilize concrete models such as bar diagrams and tables to increase and develop conceptual understanding of rates, ratios, proportions, and percentages. The course begins with a unit on input-output relationships that builds a foundation for learning about functions. This comprehensive health course is designed for middle school students. The seventh-grade SEEd standards look for relationships of cause and effect which enable students to pinpoint mechanisms of nature and allow them to make predictions. The eighth-grade SEEd standards describe the constant interaction of matter and energy in nature.

Utah is an amazing place, rich in resources, in geographic wonders, in inspiring history, and in the diversity of its people. This one semester course provides students with a comprehensive introduction to online learning, including how to work independently, safe safe, and develop effective study habits in virtual learning environment. This one-semester course is an exploration of art appreciation and covers the beginning of art history. Prerequisite: Drawing I 0. You will learn how to use animation tools to conceptualize and bring your creations to life. In the first semester of this introductory digital arts course sequence, students will learn the seven elements of visual art: line, shape, form, color, value, space, and texture.

In the second semester of this introductory digital arts course sequence, students will build on the skills and concepts learned in Digital Arts I to develop further a vocabulary of digital design elements. This course will teach students the basic of digital photography. This innovative distance learning guitar course covers the core knowledge necessary to progress quickly and confidently as a guitarist and musician.

Beginning Ukulele starts from the basics of holding and playing the instrument, strumming technique, fingering and chords. This course is designed for the student, who is currently taking private music lessons, to receive credit. This is a beginning course covering basic music theory. This course prepares students to understand human relationships involving individuals and families. The Hospitality and Tourism course provides the student with an understanding of one of the largest industries in Utah and the world. This course is designed to focus on the science of food and nutrition. This course provides students with an understanding of the aspects of human growth and development.

This course includes all aspects of designing interiors! This course explores how fashion influences everyday life and introduces students to the fashion industry. This semester course introduces high school students to the fundamental concepts of anatomy and physiology—including the organization of the body, cellular functions, and the chemistry of life. This semester-long course introduces students to the structure of medical terms, including prefixes, suffixes, word roots, combining forms, and singular and plural forms, plus medical abbreviations and acronyms. An introductory course in program engineering and applications. This course reviews and builds on the concepts introduced in Computer Programming 1.

Students are introduced to more complex data structures and their uses, including sequential files, arrays, and classes. Students will learn to create more powerful programs within a specific programming language. Prerequisite: Computer Program ming 1. This semester-long high school course is designed to provide students with the knowledge of some of the vital legal concepts that affect commerce and trade, after first gaining some familiarity with how laws are created and interpreted. Students are then introduced to the types of businesses that can be created as well as the contractual and liability considerations that can impact a business. Laws that affect how a business is regulated are reviewed, particularly the impact of administrative rules and regulations on a business.

Dispute resolution strategies are also addressed. Computer Science Principles places emphasis on the principles of computer science rather than just programming. Big ideas and concepts include: 1 Computing is a creative activity. This course reviews and builds upon skills acquired in the Microsoft Word unit in Computer Technology and Word Processing skills. Dedicated to creating effective and adaptable readers and writers, provides rigorous training in the foundations of English Language Arts skills and strategies.

Nature would then provide a check to growth in the forms of vice and misery. No gains in income could prevent this and any welfare for the poor would be self-defeating. The poor were in fact responsible for their own problems which could have been avoided through self-restraint. Several liberals, including Adam Smith and Richard Cobden, argued that the free exchange of goods between nations would lead to world peace. Smith argued that as societies progressed the spoils of war would rise, but the costs of war would rise further, making war difficult and costly for industrialised nations. Cobden believed that military expenditures worsened the welfare of the state and benefited a small but concentrated elite minority, summing up British imperialism, which he believed was the result of the economic restrictions of mercantilist policies.

To Cobden and many classical liberals, those who advocated peace must also advocate free markets. Utilitarianism provided the political justification for the implementation of economic liberalism by British governments, which was to dominate economic policy from the s. While this could be interpreted as a justification for state action to reduce poverty, it was used by classical liberals to justify inaction with the argument that the net benefit to all individuals would be higher. John Maynard Keynes was one of the most influential economists of modern times and whose ideas, which are still widely felt, formalized modern liberal economic policy.

During the Great Depression, the definitive liberal response to it was given by the English economist John Maynard Keynes — A prolific writer, among many other works, he had begun a theoretical work examining the relationship between unemployment, money and prices back in the s. He believed that budget deficits were a good thing, a product of recessions. At the height of the Great Depression in , Keynes published The Means to Prosperity , which contained specific policy recommendations for tackling unemployment in a global recession, chiefly counter cyclical public spending. The Means to Prosperity contains one of the first mentions of the multiplier effect.

The General Theory challenged the earlier neo-classical economic paradigm, which had held that provided it was unfettered by government interference, the market would naturally establish full employment equilibrium. An innovation from Keynes was the concept of price stickiness, i. The book advocated activist economic policy by government to stimulate demand in times of high unemployment, for example by spending on public works. Mary Wollstonecraft, widely regarded as the pioneer of liberal feminism. Liberal feminists hope to eradicate all barriers to gender equality, claiming that the continued existence of such barriers eviscerates the individual rights and freedoms ostensibly guaranteed by a liberal social order.

They argue that society holds the false belief that women are by nature less intellectually and physically capable than men; thus it tends to discriminate against women in the academy, the forum and the marketplace. They strive for sexual equality via political and legal reform. British philosopher Mary Wollstonecraft — is widely regarded as the pioneer of liberal feminism, with A Vindication of the Rights of Woman expanding the boundaries of liberalism to include women in the political structure of liberal society. She reasoned that if they were confined to the same cages that trap women, men would develop the same flawed characters. John Stuart Mill was also an early proponent of feminism. In his article The Subjection of Women , published , Mill attempted to prove that the legal subjugation of women is wrong and that it should give way to perfect equality.

Similar to Mary Wollstonecraft, Mill compared sexual inequality to slavery, arguing that their husbands are often just as abusive as masters and that a human being controls nearly every aspect of life for another human being. Equity feminism is a form of liberal feminism discussed since the s, specifically a kind of classically liberal or libertarian feminism. Barry Kuhle asserts that equity feminism is compatible with evolutionary psychology in contrast to gender feminism.

By the end of the 19th century, the principles of classical liberalism were being increasingly challenged by downturns in economic growth, a growing perception of the evils of poverty, unemployment and relative deprivation present within modern industrial cities as well as the agitation of organised labour. The ideal of the self-made individual, who through hard work and talent could make his or her place in the world, seemed increasingly implausible.

A major political reaction against the changes introduced by industrialisation and laissez-faire capitalism came from conservatives concerned about social balance, although socialism later became a more important force for change and reform. Some Victorian writers, including Charles Dickens, Thomas Carlyle and Matthew Arnold, became early influential critics of social injustice.

New liberals began to adapt the old language of liberalism to confront these difficult circumstances, which they believed could only be resolved through a broader and more interventionist conception of the state. An equal right to liberty could not be established merely by ensuring that individuals did not physically interfere with each other, or merely by having laws that were impartially formulated and applied. More positive and proactive measures were required to ensure that every individual would have an equal opportunity of success. John Stuart Mill contributed enormously to liberal thought by combining elements of classical liberalism with what eventually became known as the new liberalism.

He gave an impassioned defence of free speech, arguing that free discourse is a necessary condition for intellectual and social progress. He introduced a number of different concepts of the form tyranny can take, referred to as social tyranny and tyranny of the majority, respectively. His definition of liberty, influenced by Joseph Priestley and Josiah Warren, was that the individual ought to be free to do as he wishes unless he harms others. Another early liberal convert to greater government intervention was Thomas Hill Green.

Seeing the effects of alcohol, he believed that the state should foster and protect the social, political and economic environments in which individuals will have the best chance of acting according to their consciences. The state should intervene only where there is a clear, proven and strong tendency of a liberty to enslave the individual. Green regarded the national state as legitimate only to the extent that it upholds a system of rights and obligations that is most likely to foster individual self-realisation. The New Liberalism or social liberalism movement emerged about in Britain.

The New Liberals, which included intellectuals like L. Hobhouse and John A. Hobson, saw individual liberty as something achievable only under favorable social and economic circumstances. In their view, the poverty, squalor and ignorance in which many people lived made it impossible for freedom and individuality to flourish. New Liberals believed that these conditions could be ameliorated only through collective action coordinated by a strong, welfare-oriented and interventionist state. It supports a mixed economy that includes both public and private property in capital goods. Liberal socialism has been particularly prominent in British and Italian politics. Classical liberalism advocates free trade under the rule of law.

Anarcho-capitalism goes one step further, with law enforcement and the courts being provided by private companies. Various theorists have espoused legal philosophies similar to anarcho-capitalism. Later in the s, Julius Faucher and Gustave de Molinari advocated the same. Molinari and this new type of anti-state liberal grounded their reasoning on liberal ideals and classical economics. Unlike the liberalism of Locke, which saw the state as evolving from society, the anti-state liberals saw a fundamental conflict between the voluntary interactions of people, i.

This society versus state idea was expressed in various ways: natural society vs. However, the first person to use the term anarcho-capitalism was Murray Rothbard, who in the midth century synthesized elements from the Austrian School of economics, classical liberalism and 19th-century American individualist anarchists Lysander Spooner and Benjamin Tucker while rejecting their labor theory of value and the norms they derived from it. Anarcho-capitalism advocates the elimination of the state in favor of individual sovereignty, private property and free markets.

In an anarcho-capitalist society, law enforcement, courts and all other security services would be operated by privately funded competitors rather than centrally through taxation. Money, along with all other goods and services, would be privately and competitively provided in an open market. Therefore, personal and economic activities under anarcho-capitalism would be regulated by victim-based dispute resolution organizations under tort and contract law, rather than by statute through centrally determined punishment under political monopolies.

This pact would recognize self-ownership and the non-aggression principle NAP , although methods of enforcement vary. Main article: History of liberalism. Isolated strands of liberal thought had existed in Western philosophy since the Ancient Greeks and in Eastern philosophy since the Song and Ming period. These ideas were first drawn together and systematized as a distinct ideology, by the English philosopher John Locke, generally regarded as the father of modern liberalism.

The first major signs of liberal politics emerged in modern times. These ideas began to coalesce at the time of the English Civil Wars. The Levellers, a radical political movement, during the war called for freedom of religion, frequent convening of parliament and equality under the law. The impact of these ideas steadily increased during the 17th century in England, culminating in the Glorious Revolution of , which enshrined parliamentary sovereignty and the right of revolution and led to the establishment of what many consider the first modern, liberal state.

The development of liberalism continued throughout the 18th century with the burgeoning Enlightenment ideals of the era. This was a period of profound intellectual vitality that questioned old traditions and influenced several European monarchies throughout the 18th century. After the war, the leaders debated about how to move forward. The Articles of Confederation, written in , now appeared inadequate to provide security, or even a functional government.

The Confederation Congress called a Constitutional Convention in , which resulted in the writing of a new Constitution of the United States establishing a federal government. In the context of the times, the Constitution was a republican and liberal document. It remains the oldest liberal governing document in effect worldwide. In Europe, liberalism has a long tradition dating back to the 17th century. The French Revolution began in The two key events that marked the triumph of liberalism were the abolition of feudalism in France on the night of 4 August , which marked the collapse of feudal and old traditional rights and privileges and restrictions as well as the passage of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen in August.

During the Napoleonic Wars, the French brought to Western Europe the liquidation of the feudal system, the liberalization of property laws, the end of seigneurial dues, the abolition of guilds, the legalization of divorce, the disintegration of Jewish ghettos, the collapse of the Inquisition, the final end of the Holy Roman Empire, the elimination of church courts and religious authority, the establishment of the metric system and equality under the law for all men. The development into maturity of classical liberalism took place before and after the French Revolution in Britain. The radical liberal movement began in the s in England and concentrated on parliamentary and electoral reform, emphasizing natural rights and popular sovereignty.

Radicals like Richard Price and Joseph Priestley saw parliamentary reform as a first step toward dealing with their many grievances, including the treatment of Protestant Dissenters, the slave trade, high prices and high taxes. In Latin America, liberal unrest dates back to the 18th century, when liberal agitation in Latin America led to independence from the imperial power of Spain and Portugal. The new regimes were generally liberal in their political outlook and employed the philosophy of positivism, which emphasized the truth of modern science, to buttress their positions.

In the United States, a vicious war ensured the integrity of the nation and the abolition of slavery in the South. Historian Don Doyle has argued that the Union victory in the American Civil War — gave a major boost to the course of liberalism. During 19th and early 20th century in the Ottoman Empire and Middle East, liberalism influenced periods of reform such as the Tanzimat and Al-Nahda; the rise of secularism, constitutionalism and nationalism; and different intellectuals and religious group and movements, like the Young Ottomans and Islamic Modernism.

However, the reformist ideas and trends did not reach the common population successfully as the books, periodicals and newspapers were accessible primarily to intellectuals and segments of an emerging middle class while many Muslims saw them as foreign influences on the world of Islam. That perception complicated reformist efforts made by Middle Eastern states. These changes, along with other factors, helped to create a sense of crisis within Islam, which continues to this day.

This led to Islamic revivalism. Abolitionist and suffrage movements spread, along with representative and democratic ideals. France established an enduring republic in the s. However, nationalism also spread rapidly after A mixture of liberal and nationalist sentiment in Italy and Germany brought about the unification of the two countries in the late 19th century.

A liberal regime came to power in Italy and ended the secular power of the Popes. However, the Vatican launched a counter crusade against liberalism. In many countries, liberal forces responded by expelling the Jesuit order. By the end of the nineteenth century, the principles of classical liberalism were being increasingly challenged and the ideal of the self-made individual seemed increasingly implausible. Victorian writers like Charles Dickens, Thomas Carlyle and Matthew Arnold were early influential critics of social injustice. Liberalism gained momentum in the beginning of the 20th century. The bastion of autocracy, the Russian Tsar, was overthrown in the first phase of the Russian Revolution. The Allied victory in the First World War and the collapse of four empires seemed to mark the triumph of liberalism across the European continent, not just among the victorious allies, but also in Germany and the newly created states of Eastern Europe.

Militarism, as typified by Germany, was defeated and discredited. In the Middle East, liberalism led to constitutional periods, like the Ottoman First and Second Constitutional Era and the Persian constitutional period, but it declined in the late s due the growth and opposition of Islamism and pan-Arab nationalism. However, there were various examples of intellectuals who advocated liberal values and ideas.

In the United States, modern liberalism traces its history to the popular presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt, who initiated the New Deal in response to the Great Depression and won an unprecedented four elections. The New Deal coalition established by Roosevelt left a decisive legacy and influenced many future American presidents, including John F. Meanwhile, the definitive liberal response to the Great Depression was given by the British economist John Maynard Keynes, who had begun a theoretical work examining the relationship between unemployment, money and prices back in the s. The worldwide Great Depression, starting in , hastened the discrediting of liberal economics and strengthened calls for state control over economic affairs.

Economic woes prompted widespread unrest in the European political world, leading to the rise of fascism as an ideology and a movement arrayed against both liberalism and communism, especially in Nazi Germany and Italy. The rise of fascism in the s eventually culminated in World War II, the deadliest conflict in human history. The Allies prevailed in the war by and their victory set the stage for the Cold War between the Communist Eastern Bloc and the liberal Western Bloc. In Iran, liberalism enjoyed wide popularity. In April , the National Front became the governing coalition when democratically elected Mohammad Mosaddegh, a liberal nationalist, took office as the Prime Minister. However, his way of governing entered in conflict with Western interest and he was removed from power in a coup on 19 August Among the various regional and national movements, the civil rights movement in the United States during the s strongly highlighted the liberal efforts for equal rights.

While communist states and liberal democracies competed against one another, an economic crisis in the s inspired a move away from Keynesian economics, especially under Margaret Thatcher in the United Kingdom and Ronald Reagan in the United States. Meanwhile, nearing the end of the 20th century communist states in Eastern Europe collapsed precipitously, leaving liberal democracies as the only major forms of government in the West. At the beginning of World War II, the number of democracies around the world was about the same as it had been forty years before. After , liberal democracies spread very quickly, but then retreated. Liberalism has drawn both criticism and support in its history from various ideological groups.

Less friendly to the goals of liberalism has been conservatism. Edmund Burke, considered by some to be the first major proponent of modern conservative thought, offered a blistering critique of the French Revolution by assailing the liberal pretensions to the power of rationality and to the natural equality of all humans. Some confusion remains about the relationship between social liberalism and socialism, despite the fact that many variants of socialism distinguish themselves markedly from liberalism by opposing capitalism, hierarchy and private property.

Socialism formed as a group of related yet divergent ideologies in the 19th century such as Christian socialism, communism with the writings of Karl Marx and social anarchism with the writings of Mikhail Bakunin , the latter two influenced by the Paris Commune. These ideologies—as with liberalism and conservatism—fractured into several major and minor movements in the following decades. Marx rejected the foundational aspects of liberal theory, hoping to destroy both the state and the liberal distinction between society and the individual while fusing the two into a collective whole designed to overthrow the developing capitalist order of the 19th century.

Today, socialist parties and ideas remain a political force with varying degrees of power and influence on all continents leading national governments in many countries.

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