⌚ Edith Hamilton Jealousy Quotes
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Mythology Timeless Tales by Edith Hamilton - Beautiful Book review
This starts from the identification of a nearby mountain with the Chinese holy mountain Taishan and the naming of the moon as sorella la luna sister moon. The two threads are further linked by the placement of the Greek word brododactylos "rosy-fingered" applied by Homer to the dawn but given here in the dialect of Sappho and used by her in a poem of unrequited love. These images are often intimately associated with the poet's close observation of the natural world as it imposes itself on the camp; birds, a lizard, clouds, the weather and other images of nature run through the canto. Images of light and brightness associated with these goddesses come to focus in the phrase "all things that are, are lights" quoted from John Scotus Eriugena.
He, in turn, brings us back to the Albigensian Crusade and the troubadour world of Bernard de Ventadorn. Another theme sees Ecbatana , the seven-walled "city of Dioce", blend with the city of Wagadu , from the African tale of Gassire's Lute that Pound derived from Frobenius. This city, four times rebuilt, with its four walls, four gates and four towers at the corners is a symbol for spiritual endurance. It, in turn, blends with the DTC in which the poet is imprisoned. The question of banking and money also recurs, with an antisemitic passage aimed at the banker Mayer Amschel Rothschild. The canto then moves on to a longish passage of memories of the moribund literary scene Pound encountered in London when he first arrived, with the phrase "beauty is difficult", quoted from Aubrey Beardsley , acting as a refrain.
After more memories of America and Venice, the canto ends in a passage that brings together Dante's celestial rose, the rose formed by the effect of a magnet on iron filings, an image from Paul Verlaine of a fountain playing in the moonlight, and a reference to a poem by Ben Jonson in a composite image of hope for "those who have passed over Lethe ". Compare the nekuia of canto I. There follows a passage in which the poet recognises the Jewish authorship of the prohibition on usury found in Leviticus. Conversations in the camp are then cross-cut into memories of Provence and Venice, details of the American Revolution and further visions.
These memories lead to a consideration of what has or may have been destroyed in the war. Pound remembers the moment in Venice when he decided not to destroy his first book of verse, A Lume Spento , an affirmation of his decision to become a poet and a decision that ultimately led to his incarceration in the DTC. The canto ends with the goddess, in the form of a butterfly, leaving the poet's tent amid further references to Sappho and Homer. The goddess in her various guises appears again, as does Awoi's hennia , the spirit of jealousy from Aoi No Ue , a Noh play translated by Pound. The canto closes with an invocation of Dionysus Zagreus.
After opening with a glimpse of Mount Ida , an important locus for the history of the Trojan War , Canto LXXVIII moves through much that is familiar from the earlier cantos in the sequence: del Cossa, the economic basis of war, Pound's writer and artist friends in London, "virtuous" rulers Lorenzo de Medici , the emperors Justinian , Titus and Antoninus , Mussolini , usury and stamp scripts culminating in the Nausicaa episode from the Odyssey and a reference to the Confucian classic Annals of Spring and Autumn in which "there are no righteous wars".
After references to politics, economics, and the nobility of the world of the Noh and the ritual dance of the moon-nymph in Hagaromo that dispels mortal doubt, the canto closes with an extended fertility hymn to Dionysus in the guise of his sacred lynx. The canto is concerned with the aftermath of war, drawing on Yeats' experiences after the Irish Civil War as well as the contemporary situation. Pound writes of the decline of the sense of the spirit in painting from a high-point in Sandro Botticelli to the fleshiness of Rubens and its recovery in the 20th century as evidenced in the works of Marie Laurencin and others.
This is set between two further references to Mont Segur. The canto then closes with two passages, one a pastiche of Browning, the other of Edward Fitzgerald 's Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam , lamenting the lost London of Pound's youth and an image of nature as designer. The opening line, " Zeus lies in Ceres ' bosom", merges the conception of Demeter, passages in previous cantos on ritual copulation as a means of ensuring fertility, and the direct experience of the sun Zeus still hidden at dawn by two hills resembling breasts in the Pisan landscape. The canto then moves through memories of Spain, a story told by Basil Bunting, and anecdotes of a number of familiar personages and of George Santayana.
At the core of this passage is the line " to break the pentameter, that was the first heave ", Pound's comment on the "revolution of the word" that led to the emergence of Modernist poetry in the early years of the century. The goddess of love then returns after a lyric passage situating Pound's work in the great tradition of English lyric, in the sense of words intended to be sung. This is followed by a passage that draws on Pound's London memories and his reading of the Pocket Book of Verse. A passage addressed to a Dryad speaks out against the death sentence and cages for wild animals and is followed by lines on equity in government and natural processes based on the writings of Mencius. The tone of placid acceptance is underscored by three Chinese characters that translate as "don't help to grow that which will grow of itself" followed by another appearance of the Greek word for weeping in the context of remembered places.
The canto moves on through a long passage remembering Pound's time as Yeats' secretary in and a shorter meditation on the decline in standards in public life deriving from a remembered visit to the senate in the company of Pound's mother while that house was in session. This letter contained news of the death in the war of J. Angold , a young English poet whom Pound admired.
This news is woven through phrases from a lament by the troubadour Bertran de Born which Pound had once translated as "Planh for the Young English King" and a double occurrence of the Greek word tethneke "died" remembered from the story of the death of Pan in Canto XXIII. This death, reviving memories of the poet's dead friends from World War I, is followed by a passage on Pound's visit to Washington, D.
Much of the rest of the canto is concerned with the economic basis of war and the general lack of interest in this subject on the part of historians and politicians; John Adams is again held up as an ideal. The canto also contains a reproduction, in Italian, of a conversation between the poet and a "swineherd's sister" through the DTC fence. He asks her if the American troops behave well and she replies OK. He then asks how they compare to the Germans and she replies that they are the same. Pound was flown from Pisa to Washington to face trial on a charge of treason on the 16th of November Found unfit to stand trial because of the state of his mental health, he was incarcerated in St. Elizabeths Hospital , where he was to remain until Here he began to entertain writers and academics with an interest in his work and to write, working on translations of the Confucian Book of Odes and of Sophocles ' play Women of Trachis as well as two new sections of the cantos; the first of these was Rock Drill.
In an interview given in , and reprinted by J. Sullivan see References , Pound said that the title Rock Drill "was intended to imply the necessary resistance in getting a main thesis across — hammering. There are also a small number of Greek words. The overall effect for the English-speaking reader is one of unreadability, and the canto is hard to elucidate unless read alongside a copy of Couvreur's text. The core meaning is summed up in Pound's footnote to the effect that the History Classic contains the essentials of the Confucian view of good government. In the canto, these are summed up in the line "Our dynasty came in because of a great sensibility", where sensibility translates the key character Ling, and in the reference to the four Tuan, or foundations, benevolence, rectitude, manners and knowledge.
Roosevelt and Harry Dexter White , who stand for everything Pound opposes in government and finance. The world of nature, Pound's source of wealth and spiritual nourishment, also features strongly; images of roots, grass and surviving traces of fertility rites in Catholic Italy cluster around the sacred tree Yggdrasil. The natural world and the world of government are related to tekhne or art. Richard of St. Victor , with his emphasis on modes of thinking, makes an appearance, in close company with Eriugena, the philosopher of light. Canto LXXXVI opens with a passage on the Congress of Vienna and continues to hold up examples of good and bad rulers as defined by the poet with Latin and Chinese phrases from Couvreur woven through them.
The word Sagetrieb , meaning something like the transmission of tradition, apparently coined by Pound, is repeated after its first use in the previous canto, underlining Pound's belief that he is transmitting a tradition of political ethics that unites China, Revolutionary America and his own beliefs. Here, he combines Confucianism with Neo-Platonism—Y Yin was a Chinese minister famous for his justice, while Erigena refers to the Irish Neo-Platonist who emphasized regeneration and polytheism.
Canto LXXXVII opens on usury and moves through a number of references to "good" and "bad" leaders and lawgivers interwoven with Neoplatonic philosophers and images of the power of natural process. This culminates in a passage bringing together Laurence Binyon 's dictum slowness is beauty , the San Ku, or three sages, figures from the Chou King who are responsible for the balance between heaven and earth, Jacques de Molay , the golden section , a room in the church of St.
Hilaire , Poitiers built to that rule where one can stand without throwing a shadow, Mencius on natural phenomena, the 17th-century English mystic John Heydon who Pound remembered from his days working with Yeats and other images relating to the worship of light including "'MontSegur, sacred to Helios ". The canto then closes with more on economics. Pound viewed the setting up of this bank as a selling out of the principles of economic equity on which the U.
Constitution was based. At the centre of the canto there is a passage on monopolies that draws on the lives and writings of Thales of Miletus , the emperor Antoninus Pius and St. Ambrose , amongst others. The same examples of good rule are drawn on, with the addition of the Emperor Aurelian. Possibly in defence of his focus on so much "unpoetical" material, Pound quotes Rodolphus Agricola to the effect that one writes "to move, to teach or to delight" ut moveat, ut doceat, ut delectet , with the implication that the present cantos are designed to teach. The naturalists Alexander von Humboldt and Louis Agassiz are mentioned in passing.
Apart from a passing reference to Randolph of Roanoke, Canto XC moves to the world of myth and love, both divine and sexual. The canto opens with an epigraph in Latin to the effect that while the human spirit is not love, it delights in the love that proceeds from it. The Latin is paraphrased in English as the final lines of the canto. Following a reference to signatures in nature and Yggdrasil, the poet introduces Baucis and Philemon , an aged couple who, in a story from Ovid 's Metamorphoses , offer hospitality to the gods in their humble house and are rewarded. In this context, they may be intended to represent the poet and his wife. This canto then moves to the fountain of Castalia on Parnassus. This fountain was sacred to the Muses and its water was said to inspire poetry in those who drank it.
The next line, "Templum aedificans not yet marble", refers to a period when the gods were worshiped in natural settings prior to the rigid codification of religion as represented by the erection of marble temples. The "fount in the hills fold" and the erect temple Templum aedificans also serve as images of sexual love. In a litany, she is thanked for raising Pound up m'elevasti , a reference to Dante's praise of his beloved Beatrice in the Paradiso out of hell Erebus. The canto closes with a number of instances of sexual love between gods and humans set in a paradisiacal vision of the natural world.
The invocation of the goddess and the vision of paradise are sandwiched between two citations of Richard of St. Victor's statement ubi amor, ibi oculus est "where love is, there the eye is" , binding together the concepts of love, light and vision in a single image. The crystal image, which is to remain important until the end of The Cantos , is a composite of frozen light, the emphasis on inorganic form found in the writings of the mystic Heydon, the air in Dante's Paradiso , and the mirror of crystal in the Chou King amongst other sources. These couples can be seen as variants on Ra-Set.
Much of the rest of the canto consists of references to mystic doctrines of light, vision and intellection. There is an extract from a hymn to Diana from Layamon 's 12th-century poem Brut. An italicised section, claiming that the foundation of the Federal Reserve Bank , which took power over interest rates away from Congress, and the teaching of Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud in American universities "beaneries" are examples of what Julien Benda termed La trahison des clercs , contains antisemitic language.
Towards the close of the canto, the reader is returned to the world of Odysseus; a line from Book Five of the Odyssey tells of the winds breaking up the hero's boat and is followed shortly by Leucothea , "Kadamon thugater" or Cadmon's daughter offering him her veil to carry him to shore "my bikini is worth yr raft". An image of the distribution of seeds from the sacred mountain opens Canto XCII, continuing the concern with the relationship between natural process and the divine. The kernel of this canto is the idea that the Roman Empire 's preference for Christianity over Apollonius and its lack respect for its currency resulted in the almost total loss of the "true" religious tradition for a thousand years.
A number of Neoplatonic philosophers, familiar from earlier cantos but with the addition of Avicenna , are listed as representing a fine thread of light in these Dark Ages. These include Apollonius making his peace with animals, Saint Augustine on the need to feed people before attempting to convert them, and Dante and William Shakespeare writing on distributive justice, an aspect of their work that the poet points out is generally overlooked.
Central to this aspect is a fragment from Dante, non fosse cive , taken from a passage in Paradiso , Canto VIII, in which Dante is asked "would it be worse for man on earth if he were not a citizen? The phrase tu mi fai rimembrar translates as "you remind me" and comes from a passage in which Dante addresses Matilda, the presiding spirit of the Garden of Eden. What she reminds him of is Persephone at the moment that she is abducted by Hades and the spring flowers fell from her lap.
This blending of a pagan sense of the divine into a Christian context stands for much of what appealed to Pound in medieval mysticism. The canto opens with the name of Hendrik van Brederode, a lost leader of the Dutch Revolution , forgotten while William I, Prince of Orange is remembered. This name is lifted from correspondence between John Adams and Benjamin Rush which was finally published in by Alexander Biddle , a descendant of Pound's "villain" Nicholas. The rest of the canto consists mainly of paraphrases and quotations from Philostratus ' Life of Apollonius. At its conclusion, the poem returns to the world of light via Ra-Set and Ocellus. A passage deriving polis from a Greek root word for ploughing also returns us to Pound's belief that society and economic activity are based on natural productivity.
Thrones was the second volume of cantos written while Pound was incarcerated in St. In the same interview, Pound said of this section of the poem: "The thrones in Dante's Paradiso are for the spirits of the people who have been responsible for good government. The thrones in The Cantos are an attempt to move out from egoism and to establish some definition of an order possible or at any rate conceivable on earth … Thrones concerns the states of mind of people responsible for something more than their personal conduct. This document, which was based on Roman law, lays out the rules that governed the Byzantine Guild system, including the setting of just prices and so on. The original Greek is quoted extensively and an aside claiming the right to write for a specialist audience is included.
The close attention paid to the actual words prefigures the closer focus on philology in this section of the poem. This focus on words ties in closely with what Pound referred to as the method of "luminous detail", in which fragments of language intended to form the most compressed expression of an image or idea act as tesserae in the making of these late cantos. The canto closes with a passage that sees the return of the goddess as moon and Fortuna together with Greek forms of solar worship and the Flamen Dialis that is intended to integrate gold and silver as attributes of coin and the divine. This is a 17th-century set of maxims on good government written in a high literary style, but later simplified for a broader audience. Comparison is drawn between this Chinese text and the Book of the Prefect , and the canto closes with images of light as divine creation drawn from Dante's Paradiso.
The main theme of this canto is one of harmony between human society and the natural order, and a number of passing references are made to related items from earlier cantos: Confucius, Kati, Dante on citizenship, the Book of the Prefect and Plotinus amongst them. Canto C covers a range of examples of European and American statesman who Pound sees as exemplifying the maxims of the Sacred Edict to a greater or lesser extent. At the core of this canto, the motif of Leucothoe's veil kredemnon resurfaces; this time, the hero has reached the safety of the shore and returns the magic garment to the goddess. The focus of Canto CI is around the Greek phrase kalon kagathon "the beautiful and good" , which calls to mind Plotinus' attitude to the world of things and the more general Greek belief in the moral aspect of beauty.
This canto introduces the figure of St. Anselm of Canterbury , who is to feature over the rest of this section of the long poem. There are a number of references to vegetation cults and sacrifices, and the canto closes by returning to the world of Byzantium and the decline of the Western Empire. Cantos CIII and CIV range over a number of examples of the relationships between war, money and government drawn from American and European history, mostly familiar from earlier sections of the work. At the core of Canto CV are a number of citations and quotations from the writings of St. This 11th-century philosopher and inventor of the ontological argument for the existence of God who wrote poems in rhymed prose appealed to Pound because of his emphasis on the role of reason in religion and his envisioning of the divine essence as light.
In the interview already quoted, Pound points to Anselm's clash with William Rufus over his investiture as part of the history of the struggle for individual rights. Canto CVI turns to visions of the goddess as fertility symbol via Demeter and Persephone, in her lunar, love aspect as Selena , Helen and Aphrodite Euploia "of safe voyages" and as hunter Athene Proneia: "of forethought", the form in which she is worshiped at Delphi and Diana through quotes from Layamon. This work argues that the mind should rule the body as the basis of good living and good governance.
Another such figure, the English jurist and champion of civil liberties Sir Edward Coke , dominates the final three cantos of this section. This canto also refers to Dante's vision of philosophers that reveal themselves as light in the Paradiso. He also draws a comparison between Coke and Iong Cheng. The canto and section end with a reference to the following lines from the second canto of the Paradiso —. In , Pound was declared incurably insane and permanently incapable of standing trial.
Consequent on this, he was released from St. Elizabeths on condition that he return to Europe, which he promptly did. At first, he lived with his daughter Mary in Tyrol , but soon returned to Rapallo. In November , Pound wrote to his publisher James Laughlin speaking in the third person that he "has forgotten what or which politics he ever had.
Certainly has none now". His crisis of belief, together with the effects of aging, meant that the proposed paradise cantos were slow in coming and turned out to be radically different from anything the poet had envisaged. Pound was reluctant to publish these late cantos, but the appearance in of a pirate edition of Cantos — forced his hand. Laughlin pushed Pound to publish an authorised edition, and the poet responded by supplying the more-or-less abandoned drafts and fragments he had, plus two fragments dating from The resulting book, therefore, can hardly be described as representing Pound's definitive planned ending to the poem. This situation has been further complicated by the addition of more fragments in editions of the complete poem published after the poet's death.
One of these was labelled "Canto CXX" at one point, on no particular authority. This title was later removed. Although some of Pound's intention to "write a paradise" survives in the text as we have it, especially in images of light and of the natural world, other themes also intrude. These include the poet's coming to terms with a sense of artistic failure, and jealousies and hatreds that must be faced and expiated.
Canto CX opens with a pun on the word wake , conflating the wake of the little boat from the end of the previous canto and an image of Pound waking in his daughter's house in Tyrol, both from sleep and, by extension, from the nightmare of his prolonged incarceration. The goddess appears as Kuanon, Artemis and Hebe through her characteristic epithet Kallistragalos , "of fair ankles" , the goddess of youth. The Buddhist painter Toba Sojo represents directness of artistic handling. She represents a life spent meditating on beauty which resulted in vanity and ended in loss and solitude. The canto draws to a close with the phrase Lux enim "light indeed" and an image of the oval moon.
Pound's "nice, quiet paradise" is seen, in the notes for Canto CXI, to be based on serenity, pity, intelligence and individual acceptance of responsibility as illustrated by the French diplomat Talleyrand. This theme is continued in the short extract titled from Canto CXII, which also draws on the work of the anthropologist and explorer Joseph F. Rock in recording legends and religious rituals from China and Tibet. Again, this section of the poem closes with an image of the moon. Canto CXIII opens with an image of the sun moving through the zodiac, the first of a number of cycle images that occur through the canto, recalling a line from Pound's version of AOI NO UE : "Man's life is a wheel on the axle, there is no turn whereby to escape".
A reference to Marcella Spann , a young woman whose presence in Tyrol further complicated the already strained relationships between the poet, his wife Dorothy and his lover Olga Rudge , casts further light on the recurrent jealousy theme. The phrase "Syrian onyx" lifted from his Homage to Sextus Propertius , where it occurs in a section that paraphrases Propertius ' instructions to his lover on how to behave after his death, reflects the elderly Pound's sense of his own mortality. The remainder of this canto is primarily concerned with recognising indebtedness to the poet's genetic and cultural ancestors.
The short extract from Canto CXV is a reworking from an earlier version first published in the Belfast -based magazine Threshold in and centres around two main ideas. The first of these is the hostilities that existed amongst Pound's modernist friends and the negative impact that it had on all their works. The second is the image of the poet as a "blown husk", again a borrowing from the Noh, this time the play Kakitsubata. However, the home achieved is not the place intended when the poem was begun but is the terzo cielo "third heaven" of human love. The canto contains the following well-known lines:.
This passage has often been taken as an admission of failure on Pound's part, but the reality may be more complex. These lines, read in conjunction with the later "i. These lines again echo the Noh of Kakitsubata , the "light that does not lead on to darkness" in Pound's version. This final complete canto is followed by the two fragments of the s. The first of these, "Addendum for C", is a rant against usury that moves a bit away from the usual antisemitism in the line "the defiler, beyond race and against race". The second is an untitled fragment that prefigures the Pisan sequence in its nature imagery and its reference to Jannequin. The first of these has the poet raising an altar to Bacchus Zagreus and his mother Semele , whose death was as a result of jealousy.
It is, in fact, some rescued lines from the earlier version of Canto CXV, and has Pound asking forgiveness for his actions from both the gods and those he loves. After quoting two phrases from Bernart de Ventadorn 's Can vei la lauzeta mover , a poem in which the speaker contemplates a lark's flight as a token of the coming of spring, [ dubious — discuss ] the fragment closes with the line "To be men not destroyers. Despite all the controversy surrounding both poem and poet, The Cantos has been influential in the development of English-language long poems since the appearance of the early sections in the s.
Amongst poets of Pound's own generation, both H. Almost all of H. In the case of Williams, his Paterson follows Pound in using incidents and documents from the early history of the United States as part of its material. As with Pound, Williams includes Alexander Hamilton as the villain of the piece. Pound was a major influence on the Objectivist poets , and the effect of The Cantos on Zukofsky's "A" has already been noted. The other major long work by an Objectivist, Charles Reznikoff 's Testimony — , follows Pound in the direct use of primary source documents as its raw material. Pound was also an important figure for the poets of the Beat generation , especially Gary Snyder and Allen Ginsberg.
Snyder's interest in things Chinese and Japanese stemmed from his early reading of Pound's writings. In Ginsberg's development, reading Pound was influential in his move away from the long, Whitmanesque lines of his early poetry, and towards the more varied metric and inclusive approach to a variety of subjects in the single poem that is to be found especially in his book-length sequences Planet News and The Fall of America: Poems of These States More generally, The Cantos , with its wide range of references and inclusion of primary sources, including prose texts, can be seen as prefiguring found poetry.
Pound's tacit insistence that this material becomes poetry because of his action in including it in a text he chose to call a poem also prefigures the attitudes and practices that underlie 20th-century conceptual art. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the series of cantos written by Ezra Pound. For the poetry form, see canto. For other uses, see Canto disambiguation. This article needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved Accessed Nadel ed. The Cambridge Companion to Ezra Pound. Cambridge University Press, Also see Flory, Wendy Stallard. In The American Ezra Pound. Yale University Press, The above exchange was in response to Kazin, Alfred. New York: New Directions, Modern Philology , Volume 65, No. American Quarterly , Volume 17, No. Cambridge University Press. ISBN Oulo, one of the ablest and humane of the Kin emperors. Oulo died in In Canto LXXIII he enshrines an otherwise ridiculous Fascist propaganda story of a fascist maiden, raped by Allied troops, suicidally revenging herself by guiding hapless Canadian troops to their death in a minefield.
Her act is portrayed as the selfless act of a true patriot. The inclusion of the Italian Cantos in the cycle caused significant controversy. In , after a significant decline in health, Nietzsche had to resign his position at Basel. Since his childhood, various disruptive illnesses had plagued him, including moments of shortsightedness that left him nearly blind, migraine headaches, and violent indigestion.
The riding accident and diseases in may have aggravated these persistent conditions, which continued to affect him through his years at Basel, forcing him to take longer and longer holidays until regular work became impractical. Living off his pension from Basel and aid from friends, Nietzsche traveled frequently to find climates more conducive to his health and lived until as an independent author in different cities. He spent many summers in Sils Maria near St. Moritz in Switzerland. In , when France occupied Tunisia , he planned to travel to Tunis to view Europe from the outside but later abandoned that idea, probably for health reasons.
While in Genoa , Nietzsche's failing eyesight prompted him to explore the use of typewriters as a means of continuing to write. He is known to have tried using the Hansen Writing Ball , a contemporary typewriter device. In , Gast transcribed the crabbed, nearly illegible handwriting of Nietzsche's first time with Richard Wagner in Bayreuth. In responding most enthusiastically to Also Sprach Zarathustra ' Thus Spoke Zarathustra ' , Gast did feel it necessary to point out that what were described as "superfluous" people were in fact quite necessary.
He went on to list the number of people Epicurus , for example, had to rely on to supply his simple diet of goat cheese. To the end of his life, Gast and Overbeck remained consistently faithful friends. Malwida von Meysenbug remained like a motherly patron even outside the Wagner circle. Soon Nietzsche made contact with the music-critic Carl Fuchs. Nietzsche stood at the beginning of his most productive period. Beginning with Human, All Too Human in , Nietzsche published one book or major section of a book each year until , his last year of writing; that year, he completed five. In , Nietzsche published the first part of The Gay Science. She had been interested in Nietzsche as a friend, but not as a husband.
They intended to set up their commune in an abandoned monastery, but no suitable location was found. He nonetheless was happy to continue with the plans for an academic commune. Nietzsche wrote of the affair in , that he now felt "genuine hatred for my sister". By , Nietzsche was taking huge doses of opium , but he was still having trouble sleeping. He turned away from the influence of Schopenhauer , and after he severed his social ties with Wagner, Nietzsche had few remaining friends. Now, with the new style of Zarathustra , his work became even more alienating, and the market received it only to the degree required by politeness.
Nietzsche recognized this and maintained his solitude, though he often complained. His books remained largely unsold. In , he printed only 40 copies of the fourth part of Zarathustra and distributed a fraction of them among close friends, including Helene von Druskowitz. In , he tried and failed to obtain a lecturing post at the University of Leipzig. According to a letter he wrote to Peter Gast, this was due to his "attitude towards Christianity and the concept of God". In , Nietzsche broke with his publisher Ernst Schmeitzner, disgusted by his antisemitic opinions. Nietzsche saw his own writings as "completely buried and in this anti-Semitic dump" of Schmeitzner—associating the publisher with a movement that should be "utterly rejected with cold contempt by every sensible mind.
He also acquired the publication rights for his earlier works and over the next year issued second editions of The Birth of Tragedy , Human, All Too Human , Daybreak , and of The Gay Science with new prefaces placing the body of his work in a more coherent perspective. Thereafter, he saw his work as completed for a time and hoped that soon a readership would develop. In fact, interest in Nietzsche's thought did increase at this time, if rather slowly and hardly perceptibly to him.
He continued to have frequent and painful attacks of illness, which made prolonged work impossible. In , Nietzsche wrote the polemic On the Genealogy of Morality. During the same year, he encountered the work of Fyodor Dostoyevsky , to whom he felt an immediate kinship. However, before fulfilling this promise, Nietzsche slipped too far into illness. At the beginning of , Brandes delivered in Copenhagen one of the first lectures on Nietzsche's philosophy. Although Nietzsche had previously announced at the end of On the Genealogy of Morality a new work with the title The Will to Power : Attempt at a Revaluation of All Values , he seems to have abandoned this idea and, instead, used some of the draft passages to compose Twilight of the Idols and The Antichrist in His health improved and he spent the summer in high spirits.
In the autumn of , his writings and letters began to reveal a higher estimation of his own status and "fate". He overestimated the increasing response to his writings, however, especially to the recent polemic, The Case of Wagner. On his 44th birthday, after completing Twilight of the Idols and The Antichrist , he decided to write the autobiography Ecce Homo. In its preface—which suggests Nietzsche was well aware of the interpretive difficulties his work would generate—he declares, "Hear me! For I am such and such a person. Above all, do not mistake me for someone else. Moreover, he planned the publication of the compilation Nietzsche contra Wagner and of the poems that made up his collection Dionysian-Dithyrambs.
On 3 January , Nietzsche suffered a mental breakdown. What happened remains unknown, but an often-repeated tale from shortly after his death states that Nietzsche witnessed the flogging of a horse at the other end of the Piazza Carlo Alberto, ran to the horse, threw his arms around its neck to protect it, then collapsed to the ground. In the following few days, Nietzsche sent short writings—known as the Wahnzettel literally "Delusion notes" —to a number of friends including Cosima Wagner and Jacob Burckhardt. Most of them were signed " Dionysus ", though some were also signed "der Gekreuzigte" meaning "the crucified one". To his former colleague Burckhardt, Nietzsche wrote: .
I have had Caiaphas put in fetters. Also, last year I was crucified by the German doctors in a very drawn-out manner. Wilhelm , Bismarck , and all anti-Semites abolished. Additionally, he commanded the German emperor to go to Rome to be shot and summoned the European powers to take military action against Germany,  writing also that the pope should be put in jail and that he, Nietzsche, created the world and was in the process of having all anti-Semites shot dead. On 6 January , Burckhardt showed the letter he had received from Nietzsche to Overbeck.
The following day, Overbeck received a similar letter and decided that Nietzsche's friends had to bring him back to Basel. Overbeck traveled to Turin and brought Nietzsche to a psychiatric clinic in Basel. By that time Nietzsche appeared fully in the grip of a serious mental illness,  and his mother Franziska decided to transfer him to a clinic in Jena under the direction of Otto Binswanger. From November to February , the art historian Julius Langbehn attempted to cure Nietzsche, claiming that the methods of the medical doctors were ineffective in treating Nietzsche's condition. In March , Franziska removed Nietzsche from the clinic and, in May , brought him to her home in Naumburg. In February, they ordered a fifty-copy private edition of Nietzsche contra Wagner , but the publisher C.
Naumann secretly printed one hundred. Overbeck and Gast decided to withhold publishing The Antichrist and Ecce Homo because of their more radical content. In , Nietzsche's sister Elisabeth returned from Nueva Germania in Paraguay following the suicide of her husband. She studied Nietzsche's works and, piece by piece, took control of their publication. Overbeck was dismissed and Gast finally co-operated. After the death of Franziska in , Nietzsche lived in Weimar , where Elisabeth cared for him and allowed visitors, including Rudolf Steiner who in had written Friedrich Nietzsche: a Fighter Against His Time, one of the first books praising Nietzsche ,  to meet her uncommunicative brother.
Elisabeth employed Steiner as a tutor to help her to understand her brother's philosophy. Steiner abandoned the attempt after only a few months, declaring that it was impossible to teach her anything about philosophy. Nietzsche's mental illness was originally diagnosed as tertiary syphilis , in accordance with a prevailing medical paradigm of the time. Although most commentators [ who? In and , Nietzsche suffered at least two strokes.
They partially paralyzed him, leaving him unable to speak or walk. After contracting pneumonia in mid-August , he had another stroke during the night of 24—25 August and died at about noon on 25 August. His friend and secretary Gast gave his funeral oration, proclaiming: "Holy be your name to all future generations! Because his sister arranged the book based on her own conflation of several of Nietzsche's early outlines and took liberties with the material, the scholarly consensus has been that it does not reflect Nietzsche's intent. For example, Elisabeth removed aphorism 35 of The Antichrist , where Nietzsche rewrote a passage of the Bible. Indeed, Mazzino Montinari , the editor of Nietzsche's Nachlass , called it a forgery.
General commentators and Nietzsche scholars, whether emphasizing his cultural background or his language, overwhelmingly label Nietzsche as a "German philosopher. When he accepted his post at Basel, Nietzsche applied for annulment of his Prussian citizenship. At least toward the end of his life, Nietzsche believed his ancestors were Polish. His descendants later settled in the Electorate of Saxony circa the year I am proud of my Polish descent. Most scholars dispute Nietzsche's account of his family's origins.
The name derives from the forename Nikolaus, abbreviated to Nick ; assimilated with the Slavic Nitz ; it first became Nitsche and then Nietzsche. It is not known why Nietzsche wanted to be thought of as Polish nobility. According to biographer R. Hollingdale , Nietzsche's propagation of the Polish ancestry myth may have been part of his "campaign against Germany. More claims Nietzsche's claims of having an illustrious lineage were a parody on autobiographical conventions, and suspects Ecce Homo , with its self-laudatory titles, such as "Why I Am So Wise", as being a work of satire. Nietzsche never married. Deussen cited the episode of Cologne 's brothel in February as instrumental to understanding the philosopher's way of thinking, mostly about women.
Nietzsche was surreptitiously accompanied to a "call house" from which he clumsily escaped upon seeing "a half dozen apparitions dressed in sequins and veils. For him, women had to sacrifice themselves to the care and benefit of men. Some maintain that Nietzsche contracted it in a male brothel in Genoa. Yet they offer other examples in which Nietzsche expressed his affections to women, including Wagner's wife Cosima Wagner. Nietzsche composed several works for voice, piano, and violin beginning in at the Schulpforta in Naumburg when he started to work on musical compositions. Richard Wagner was dismissive of Nietzsche's music, allegedly mocking a birthday gift of a piano composition sent by Nietzsche in to his wife Cosima. In a letter of , Nietzsche claimed, "There has never been a philosopher who has been in essence a musician to such an extent as I am," although he also admitted that he "might be a thoroughly unsuccessful musician.
Because of Nietzsche's evocative style and provocative ideas, his philosophy generates passionate reactions. His works remain controversial, due to varying interpretations and misinterpretations. In Western philosophy, Nietzsche's writings have been described as a case of free revolutionary thought, that is, revolutionary in its structure and problems, although not tied to any revolutionary project.
The Apollonian and Dionysian is a two-fold philosophical concept, based on features of ancient Greek mythology: Apollo and Dionysus. This relationship takes the form of a dialectic. Nietzsche found in classical Athenian tragedy an art form that transcended the pessimism found in the so-called wisdom of Silenus. The Greek spectators, by looking into the abyss of human suffering depicted by characters on stage, passionately and joyously affirmed life, finding it worth living. The main theme in The Birth of Tragedy is that the fusion of Dionysian and Apollonian Kunsttriebe "artistic impulses" forms dramatic arts or tragedies.
He argued that this fusion has not been achieved since the ancient Greek tragedians. Apollo represents harmony, progress, clarity, logic and the principle of individuation , whereas Dionysus represents disorder, intoxication, emotion, ecstasy and unity hence the omission of the principle of individuation. Nietzsche used these two forces because, for him, the world of mind and order on one side, and passion and chaos on the other, formed principles that were fundamental to the Greek culture :   the Apollonian a dreaming state, full of illusions; and Dionysian a state of intoxication, representing the liberations of instinct and dissolution of boundaries.
In this mold, a man appears as the satyr. He is the horror of the annihilation of the principle of individuality and at the same time someone who delights in its destruction. Apollonian and Dionysian juxtapositions appear in the interplay of tragedy: the tragic hero of the drama, the main protagonist, struggles to make Apollonian order of his unjust and chaotic Dionysian fate, though he dies unfulfilled. Elaborating on the conception of Hamlet as an intellectual who cannot make up his mind, and is a living antithesis to the man of action, Nietzsche argues that a Dionysian figure possesses the knowledge that his actions cannot change the eternal balance of things, and it disgusts him enough not to act at all. Hamlet falls under this category—he glimpsed the supernatural reality through the Ghost, he has gained true knowledge and knows that no action of his has the power to change this.
He describes primordial unity as the increase of strength, the experience of fullness and plenitude bestowed by frenzy. Frenzy acts as intoxication and is crucial for the physiological condition that enables the creation of any art. In this state one enriches everything out of one's own fullness: whatever one sees, whatever wills is seen swelled, taut, strong, overloaded with strength. A man in this state transforms things until they mirror his power—until they are reflections of his perfection.
This having to transform into perfection is—art. Nietzsche is adamant that the works of Aeschylus and Sophocles represent the apex of artistic creation, the true realization of tragedy; it is with Euripides , that tragedy begins its Untergang literally 'going under' or 'downward-way;' meaning decline, deterioration, downfall, death, etc. Nietzsche objects to Euripides' use of Socratic rationalism and morality in his tragedies, claiming that the infusion of ethics and reason robs tragedy of its foundation, namely the fragile balance of the Dionysian and Apollonian.
Socrates emphasized reason to such a degree that he diffused the value of myth and suffering to human knowledge. Plato continued along this path in his dialogues, and the modern world eventually inherited reason at the expense of artistic impulses found in the Apollonian and Dionysian dichotomy. He notes that without the Apollonian, the Dionysian lacks the form and structure to make a coherent piece of art, and without the Dionysian, the Apollonian lacks the necessary vitality and passion.
Only the fertile interplay of these two forces brought together as an art represented the best of Greek tragedy. An example of the impact of this idea can be seen in the book Patterns of Culture, where anthropologist Ruth Benedict acknowledges Nietzschean opposites of "Apollonian" and "Dionysian" as the stimulus for her thoughts about Native American cultures. Here Foucault referenced Nietzsche's description of the birth and death of tragedy and his explanation that the subsequent tragedy of the Western world was the refusal of the tragic and, with that, refusal of the sacred.
Nietzsche claimed the death of God would eventually lead to the loss of any universal perspective on things and any coherent sense of objective truth. In Also Sprach Zarathustra , Nietzsche proclaimed that a table of values hangs above every great person. He pointed out that what is common among different peoples is the act of esteeming, of creating values, even if the values are different from one person to the next. Nietzsche asserted that what made people great was not the content of their beliefs, but the act of valuing. Thus the values a community strives to articulate are not as important as the collective will to see those values come to pass. The willingness is more essential than the merit of the goal itself, according to Nietzsche.
Only the yoke for the thousand necks is still lacking: the one goal is lacking. Humanity still has no goal. The idea that one value-system is no more worthy than the next, although it may not be directly ascribed to Nietzsche, has become a common premise in modern social science. Max Weber and Martin Heidegger absorbed it and made it their own. It shaped their philosophical and cultural endeavors, as well as their political understanding.
Weber, for example, relied on Nietzsche's perspectivism by maintaining that objectivity is still possible—but only after a particular perspective, value, or end has been established. Among his critique of traditional philosophy of Kant , Descartes , and Plato in Beyond Good and Evil , Nietzsche attacked the thing in itself and cogito ergo sum "I think, therefore I am" as unfalsifiable beliefs based on naive acceptance of previous notions and fallacies.
While criticizing nihilism and Nietzsche together as a sign of general decay,  he still commended him for recognizing psychological motives behind Kant and Hume 's moral philosophy: . For it was Nietzsche's historic achievement to understand more clearly than any other philosopher In Beyond Good and Evil and On the Genealogy of Morality , Nietzsche's genealogical account of the development of modern moral systems occupies a central place. For Nietzsche, a fundamental shift took place during the human history from thinking in terms of "good and bad" toward "good and evil. The initial form of morality was set by a warrior aristocracy and other ruling castes of ancient civilizations. Aristocratic values of good and bad coincided with and reflected their relationship to lower castes such as slaves.
Nietzsche presented this "master morality" as the original system of morality—perhaps best associated with Homeric Greece. To be "bad" was to be like the slaves over whom the aristocracy ruled: poor, weak, sick, pathetic—objects of pity or disgust rather than hatred. Value emerges from the contrast between good and evil: good being associated with other-worldliness, charity, piety, restraint, meekness, and submission; while evil is worldly, cruel, selfish, wealthy, and aggressive. Nietzsche saw slave morality as pessimistic and fearful, its values emerging to improve the self-perception of slaves. He associated slave morality with the Jewish and Christian traditions, as it is born out of the ressentiment of slaves.
Nietzsche argued that the idea of equality allowed slaves to overcome their own conditions without despising themselves. By denying the inherent inequality of people—in success, strength, beauty, and intelligence—slaves acquired a method of escape, namely by generating new values on the basis of rejecting master morality, which frustrated them. It was used to overcome the slave's sense of inferiority before their better-off masters. It does so by making out slave weakness, for example, to be a matter of choice, by relabeling it as "meekness".
The "good man" of master morality is precisely the "evil man" of slave morality, while the "bad man" is recast as the "good man". Nietzsche saw slave morality as a source of the nihilism that has overtaken Europe. Modern Europe and Christianity exist in a hypocritical state due to a tension between master and slave morality, both contradictory values determining, to varying degrees, the values of most Europeans who are " motley ". Nietzsche called for exceptional people not to be ashamed in the face of a supposed morality-for-all, which he deems to be harmful to the flourishing of exceptional people. He cautioned, however, that morality, per se, is not bad; it is good for the masses and should be left to them.
Exceptional people, on the other hand, should follow their own "inner law". A long-standing assumption about Nietzsche is that he preferred master over slave morality. However, eminent Nietzsche scholar Walter Kaufmann rejected this interpretation, writing that Nietzsche's analyses of these two types of morality were used only in a descriptive and historic sense; they were not meant for any kind of acceptance or glorification. In Daybreak , Nietzsche began his "Campaign against Morality". Nietzsche's concept " God is dead " applies to the doctrines of Christendom , though not to all other faiths: he claimed that Buddhism is a successful religion that he complimented for fostering critical thought.
Art as the single superior counterforce against all will to negation of life, art as the anti-Christian, anti-Buddhist, anti-Nihilist par excellence. Nietzsche claimed that the Christian faith as practiced was not a proper representation of Jesus' teachings, as it forced people merely to believe in the way of Jesus but not to act as Jesus did; in particular, his example of refusing to judge people, something that Christians constantly did.
Christianity is called the religion of pity. Pity stands opposed to the tonic emotions which heighten our vitality: it has a depressing effect. We are deprived of strength when we feel pity. That loss of strength in which suffering as such inflicts on life is still further increased and multiplied by pity. Pity makes suffering contagious. In Ecce Homo Nietzsche called the establishment of moral systems based on a dichotomy of good and evil a "calamitous error",  and wished to initiate a re-evaluation of the values of the Christian world.
While Nietzsche attacked the principles of Judaism, he was not antisemitic : in his work On the Genealogy of Morality , he explicitly condemned antisemitism and pointed out that his attack on Judaism was not an attack on contemporary Jewish people but specifically an attack upon the ancient Jewish priesthood who he claimed antisemitic Christians paradoxically based their views upon. Nietzsche felt that modern antisemitism was "despicable" and contrary to European ideals. The statement " God is dead ," occurring in several of Nietzsche's works notably in The Gay Science , has become one of his best-known remarks. On the basis of it, many commentators  regard Nietzsche as an atheist ; others such as Kaufmann suggest that this statement reflects a more subtle understanding of divinity.
Scientific developments and the increasing secularization of Europe had effectively 'killed' the Abrahamic God, who had served as the basis for meaning and value in the West for more than a thousand years. The death of God may lead beyond bare perspectivism to outright nihilism , the belief that nothing has any inherent importance and that life lacks purpose. Nietzsche believed that Christian moral doctrine provides people with intrinsic value , belief in God which justifies the evil in the world , and a basis for objective knowledge.
In constructing a world where objective knowledge is possible, Christianity is an antidote to a primal form of nihilism—the despair of meaninglessness. As Heidegger put the problem, "If God as the supra sensory ground and goal of all reality is dead if the supra sensory world of the ideas has suffered the loss of its obligatory and above it its vitalizing and upbuilding power, then nothing more remains to which man can cling and by which he can orient himself.
One such reaction to the loss of meaning is what Nietzsche called passive nihilism, which he recognized in the pessimistic philosophy of Schopenhauer. Schopenhauer's doctrine—which Nietzsche also referred to as Western Buddhism —advocates separating oneself from will and desires to reduce suffering. Nietzsche characterized this ascetic attitude as a "will to nothingness". Life turns away from itself as there is nothing of value to be found in the world.
This moving away of all value in the world is characteristic of the nihilist, although, in this, the nihilist appears to be inconsistent; this "will to nothingness" is still a disavowed form of willing. A nihilist is a man who judges that the real world ought not to be and that the world as it ought to do not exist. According to this view, our existence action, suffering , willing, feeling has no meaning: this 'in vain' is the nihilists' pathos—an inconsistency on the part of the nihilists.
Nietzsche approached the problem of nihilism as a deeply personal one, stating that this problem of the modern world had "become conscious" in him. I believe it is one of the greatest crises, a moment of the deepest self-reflection of humanity. Whether man recovers from it, whether he becomes a master of this crisis, is a question of his strength! He wished to hasten its coming only so that he could also hasten its ultimate departure. Heidegger interpreted the death of God with what he explained as the death of metaphysics. He concluded that metaphysics has reached its potential and that the ultimate fate and downfall of metaphysics was proclaimed with the statement "God is dead.
A basic element in Nietzsche's philosophical outlook is the " will to power " der Wille zur Macht , which he maintained provides a basis for understanding human behavior—more so than competing explanations, such as the ones based on pressure for adaptation or survival. In presenting his theory of human behavior, Nietzsche also addressed and attacked concepts from philosophies then popularly embraced, such as Schopenhauer's notion of an aimless will or that of utilitarianism. Utilitarians claim that what moves people is the desire to be happy and accumulate pleasure in their lives.
But such a conception of happiness Nietzsche rejected as something limited to, and characteristic of, the bourgeois lifestyle of the English society,  and instead put forth the idea that happiness is not an aim per se. It is a consequence of overcoming hurdles to one's actions and the fulfillment of the will. Related to his theory of the will to power is his speculation, which he did not deem final,  regarding the reality of the physical world, including inorganic matter—that, like man's affections and impulses, the material world is also set by the dynamics of a form of the will to power.
At the core of his theory is a rejection of atomism —the idea that matter is composed of stable, indivisible units atoms. Likewise, he rejected the view that the movement of bodies is ruled by inexorable laws of nature, positing instead that movement was governed by the power relations between bodies and forces. Other than Aphorism 36 in Beyond Good and Evil, where he raised a question regarding will to power as being in the material world, they argue, it was only in his notes unpublished by himself , where he wrote about a metaphysical will to power. And they also claim that Nietzsche directed his landlord to burn those notes in when he left Sils Maria.
However, a recent study Huang shows that although it is true that in Nietzsche wanted some of his notes burned, this indicates little about his project on the will to power, not only because only 11 "aphorisms" saved from the flames were ultimately incorporated into The Will to Power this book contains "aphorisms" , but also because these abandoned notes mainly focus on topics such as the critique of morality while touching upon the "feeling of power" only once. It is a purely physical concept, involving no supernatural reincarnation , but the return of beings in the same bodies. Nietzsche first proposed the idea of eternal return in a parable in Section of The Gay Science , and also in the chapter "Of the Vision and the Riddle" in Thus Spoke Zarathustra , among other places.
To comprehend eternal recurrence, and to not only come to peace with it but to embrace it, requires amor fati , "love of fate". According to Heidegger, it is the burden imposed by the question of eternal recurrence—whether it could possibly be true—that is so significant in modern thought: "The way Nietzsche here patterns the first communication of the thought of the 'greatest burden' [of eternal recurrence] makes it clear that this 'thought of thoughts' is at the same time 'the most burdensome thought.
Nietzsche suggests that the universe is recurring over infinite time and space and that different versions of events that have occurred in the past may take place again, hence "all configurations that have previously existed on this earth must yet meet". Alexander Nehamas writes in Nietzsche: Life as Literature of three ways of seeing the eternal recurrence:. Nehamas concluded that, if individuals constitute themselves through their actions, they can only maintain themselves in their current state by living in a recurrence of past actions Nehamas, Nietzsche's thought is the negation of the idea of a history of salvation.
According to Laurence Lampert , "the death of God must be followed by a long twilight of piety and nihilism II. Zarathustra's gift of the overman is given to mankind not aware of the problem to which the overman is the solution. He wants a kind of spiritual evolution of self-awareness and overcoming of traditional views on morality and justice that stem from the superstition beliefs still deeply rooted or related to the notion of God and Christianity. Man is something that shall be overcome. What have you done to overcome him? All beings so far have created something beyond themselves: and you want to be the ebb of that great tide, and would rather go back to the beast than overcome man? What is the ape to man?
A laughing-stock or a painful embarrassment. You have made your way from worm to man, and much within you is still worm. Once you were apes, and even yet man is more of an ape than any ape. Even the wisest among you is only a conflict and hybrid of plant and ghost. But do I bid you become ghosts or plants? What is great in man is that he is a bridge and not a goal: what is lovable in man is that he is an over-going and a going under. The last man is possible only by mankind's having bred an apathetic creature who has no great passion or commitment, who is unable to dream, who merely earns his living and keeps warm.
Values involve a rank-ordering of things, and so are inseparable from approval and disapproval, yet it was dissatisfaction that prompted men to seek refuge in other-worldliness and embrace other-worldly values. Willing the eternal recurrence is presented as accepting the existence of the low while still recognizing it as the low, and thus as overcoming the spirit of gravity or asceticism. This action nearly kills Zarathustra, for example, and most human beings cannot avoid other-worldliness because they really are sick, not because of any choice they made. The Nazis attempted to incorporate the concept into their ideology by means of taking Nietzsche's figurative form of speech and creating a literal superiority over other ethnicities.
She reworked Nietzsche's unpublished writings to fit her own German nationalist ideology while often contradicting or obfuscating Nietzsche's stated opinions, which were explicitly opposed to antisemitism and nationalism. Through her published editions, Nietzsche's work became associated with fascism and Nazism ;  20th-century scholars contested this interpretation of his work and corrected editions of his writings were soon made available. Although Nietzsche has famously been misrepresented as a predecessor to Nazism, he criticized anti-Semitism, pan-Germanism and, to a lesser extent, nationalism. Friedrich Nietzsche held a pessimistic view of modern society and culture.
He believed the press and mass culture led to conformity, brought about mediocrity, and the lack of intellectual progress was leading to the decline of the human species. In his opinion, some people would be able to become superior individuals through the use of will power. By rising above mass culture, those persons would produce higher, brighter, and healthier human beings. A trained philologist, Nietzsche had a thorough knowledge of Greek philosophy. He read Kant , Plato , Mill , Schopenhauer and Spir ,  who became the main opponents in his philosophy, and later engaged, via the work of Kuno Fischer in particular, with the thought of Baruch Spinoza , whom he saw as his "precursor" in many respects   but as a personification of the "ascetic ideal" in others.
However, Nietzsche referred to Kant as a "moral fanatic", Plato as "boring", Mill as a "blockhead", and of Spinoza, he asked: "How much of personal timidity and vulnerability does this masquerade of a sickly recluse betray?Anecdotes on Titian and Mozart deal with the Edith Hamilton Jealousy Quotes between artist and patron. The short extract from Canto CXV is a reworking from an tuck everlasting movie version first published in the Belfast -based magazine Threshold in and centres around Edith Hamilton Jealousy Quotes My Passion For Writing ideas. He was, however, captured by the Edith Hamilton Jealousy Quotes gods and subjected to Edith Hamilton Jealousy Quotes Tesco Economic Aspect. Nietzsche recognized Edith Hamilton Jealousy Quotes and maintained his solitude, though he often complained. Pound had been considering Edith Hamilton Jealousy Quotes a Edith Hamilton Jealousy Quotes poem since the clock poembut work did not begin until May when Edith Hamilton Jealousy Quotes wrote to his mother that he was working on a long poem. There appears the palace of greedy Dis [Haides].